Clostridioides difficile is the causative agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, a worldwide public health problem. Different factors can promote the progression of C. difficile infection (CDI), mainly altered intestinal microbiota composition. Microbial species belonging to different domains (i.e., bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes, and even viruses) are synergistically and antagonistically associated with CDI. This review was aimed at updating changes regarding CDI-related human microbiota composition using recent data and an integral approach that included the different microorganism domains. The three domains of life contribute to intestinal microbiota homeostasis at different levels in which relationships among microorganisms could explain the wide range of clinical manifestations. A holistic understanding of intestinal ecosystem functioning will facilitate identifying new predictive factors for infection and developing better treatment and new diagnostic tools, thereby reducing this disease’s morbidity and mortality.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases