Introduction: Studies on the cross-protective effect of HPV bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines demonstrated inconsistent findings against additional HPV types covered by the nonavalent vaccine. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review to assess the consistency and durability of the cross-protective neutralizing antibody immune responses of the currently licensed bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines to non-vaccine HPV types targeted by the nonavalent vaccine (HPV 6, 11, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58). Methods: PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched from 2008 to 2019 to identify studies reporting antibody/immune response after vaccination with either the bivalent, quadrivalent, or nonavalent vaccine. Key outcomes were seroconversion, seropositivity or geometric mean titers against HPV types 6, 11, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58. Results: Eighteen publications met inclusion criteria, reporting on 14 interventional and five observational studies. Across all studies, immune responses to non-vaccine high-risk HPV types after bivalent vaccination were higher than baseline or quadrivalent vaccine. Nonavalent vaccine elicited near total seroconversion to HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, with seropositivity remaining near 100% up to 24 months post-dose 1. In contrast, bivalent and quadrivalent vaccination resulted in lower seroconversion levels for non-vaccine types, which waned over time. Conclusions: The cross-protection antibody/immune response among participants having received all three doses of bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine is not comparable to the specific response elicited by HPV vaccine types. Even in cases where a statistically significant cross-reactive immunological response is reported, long-term data on the duration of the response beyond two years are very limited. Further, the lack of a standard for assays limits comparability of results between studies.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Infectious Diseases