Prevalence of hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and euthyroidism in thyroid eye disease: A systematic review of the literature

Juliana Muñoz-Ortiz, Maria Camila Sierra-Cote, Estefanía Zapata-Bravo, Laura Valenzuela-Vallejo, Maria Alejandra Marin-Noriega, Pilar Uribe-Reina, Juan Pablo Terreros-Dorado, Marcela Gómez-Suarez, Karla Arteaga-Rivera, Alejandra De-La-Torre

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Background: Thyroid eye disease is an autoimmune disorder of the orbital retrobulbar tissue commonly associated with dysthyroid status. The most frequent condition is hyperthyroidism, although it is also present in hypothyroid and euthyroid patients. The prevalence of thyroid conditions in patients with thyroid eye disease had been previously evaluated; however, there is no consensus on a global prevalence. The study aims to estimate the prevalence of hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and euthyroidism in patients with TED, through a systematic review of literature. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature following the PRISMA guidelines, in MEDLINE, COCHRANE, EMBASE, Science Direct, and LILACS databases. Inclusion criteria were primary studies of patients with a diagnosis of thyroid eye disease made by an ophthalmologist or with diagnosis criteria, with measurement of thyroid function (TSH, T3, and free T4), and diagnosis of the primary thyroid condition. A quality assessment was made through the Joanna Briggs Institute Quality tools. Finally, we extracted relevant details about the design, the results, and the prevalence of thyroid disorders in thyroid eye disease. Results: The initial search revealed 916 studies, of which finally thirteen met inclusion criteria. Six studies were performed in Europe (Germany, Wales, and Spain), five in Asia (Iran, South Korea, Japan, and Singapore), one in North America (USA), and one in Africa (Ghana). The global prevalence, in patients of thyroid eye disease, was 10.36% for hypothyroidism, 7.9% for euthyroidism, and 86.2% for hyperthyroidism. Conclusions: Professionals should be aware that thyroid eye disease can be present in patients with a normal thyroid function. The assessment for these patients is based on orbital images; serum TSH, T3, and free T4; antibody levels as thyrotropin receptor antibodies; and thyroperoxidase levels. Additionally, we want to encourage research in this field in other regions of the world such as Latin America. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO ID CRD42020107167

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number201
JournalSystematic Reviews
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 1 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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