PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To carry out an update on the state of the art of the Mayaro virus (MAYV) infection and its osteoarticular implications. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a wide distribution of MAYV in Latin America and documented exported cases to the United States and Europe. Although osteoarticular involvement is not the most frequent, it is one the most associated with disability. The main mechanisms related to arthropathy involves cellular infiltrates (i.e. macrophages, natural killer cells, lymphocytes) together with production of cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-7, IL8, IL-12p70. SUMMARY: MAYV infection is an emerging disease, which has been reported in many and increasing number of countries of Latin America. There is a high risk of epidemic outbreaks, given the inadequate vector control (Aedes mosquitoes). Its main symptoms, like other arbovirus infections, involve the presence of headache, rash, conjunctivitis, and arthralgias. MAYV arthropathy is usually severe, can last in time, and is associated with severe disability. There is currently no treatment for MAYV. Prevention of MAYV as a public health burden will be achieved by integrating vector control with vaccines (still under development).
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