Genome analysis reveals evolutionary mechanisms of adaptation in systemic dimorphic fungi

José F. Muñoz, Juan G. McEwen, Oliver K. Clay, Christina A. Cuomo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Dimorphic fungal pathogens cause a significant human disease burden and unlike most fungal pathogens affect immunocompetent hosts. To examine the origin of virulence of these fungal pathogens, we compared genomes of classic systemic, opportunistic, and non-pathogenic species, including Emmonsia and two basal branching, non-pathogenic species in the Ajellomycetaceae, Helicocarpus griseus and Polytolypa hystricis. We found that gene families related to plant degradation, secondary metabolites synthesis, and amino acid and lipid metabolism are retained in H. griseus and P. hystricis. While genes involved in the virulence of dimorphic pathogenic fungi are conserved in saprophytes, changes in the copy number of proteases, kinases and transcription factors in systemic dimorphic relative to non-dimorphic species may have aided the evolution of specialized gene regulatory programs to rapidly adapt to higher temperatures and new nutritional environments. Notably, both of the basal branching, non-pathogenic species appear homothallic, with both mating type locus idiomorphs fused at a single locus, whereas all related pathogenic species are heterothallic. These differences revealed that independent changes in nutrient acquisition capacity have occurred in the Onygenaceae and Ajellomycetaceae, and underlie how the dimorphic pathogens have adapted to the human host and decreased their capacity for growth in environmental niches.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4473
JournalScientific Reports
Volume8
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General

Cite this

Muñoz, José F. ; McEwen, Juan G. ; Clay, Oliver K. ; Cuomo, Christina A. / Genome analysis reveals evolutionary mechanisms of adaptation in systemic dimorphic fungi. In: Scientific Reports. 2018 ; Vol. 8, No. 1.
@article{936cb97f6939408280f705653eb95516,
title = "Genome analysis reveals evolutionary mechanisms of adaptation in systemic dimorphic fungi",
abstract = "Dimorphic fungal pathogens cause a significant human disease burden and unlike most fungal pathogens affect immunocompetent hosts. To examine the origin of virulence of these fungal pathogens, we compared genomes of classic systemic, opportunistic, and non-pathogenic species, including Emmonsia and two basal branching, non-pathogenic species in the Ajellomycetaceae, Helicocarpus griseus and Polytolypa hystricis. We found that gene families related to plant degradation, secondary metabolites synthesis, and amino acid and lipid metabolism are retained in H. griseus and P. hystricis. While genes involved in the virulence of dimorphic pathogenic fungi are conserved in saprophytes, changes in the copy number of proteases, kinases and transcription factors in systemic dimorphic relative to non-dimorphic species may have aided the evolution of specialized gene regulatory programs to rapidly adapt to higher temperatures and new nutritional environments. Notably, both of the basal branching, non-pathogenic species appear homothallic, with both mating type locus idiomorphs fused at a single locus, whereas all related pathogenic species are heterothallic. These differences revealed that independent changes in nutrient acquisition capacity have occurred in the Onygenaceae and Ajellomycetaceae, and underlie how the dimorphic pathogens have adapted to the human host and decreased their capacity for growth in environmental niches.",
author = "Mu{\~n}oz, {Jos{\'e} F.} and McEwen, {Juan G.} and Clay, {Oliver K.} and Cuomo, {Christina A.}",
year = "2018",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1038/s41598-018-22816-6",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "8",
journal = "Scientific Reports",
issn = "2045-2322",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "1",

}

Genome analysis reveals evolutionary mechanisms of adaptation in systemic dimorphic fungi. / Muñoz, José F.; McEwen, Juan G.; Clay, Oliver K.; Cuomo, Christina A.

In: Scientific Reports, Vol. 8, No. 1, 4473, 01.12.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Genome analysis reveals evolutionary mechanisms of adaptation in systemic dimorphic fungi

AU - Muñoz, José F.

AU - McEwen, Juan G.

AU - Clay, Oliver K.

AU - Cuomo, Christina A.

PY - 2018/12/1

Y1 - 2018/12/1

N2 - Dimorphic fungal pathogens cause a significant human disease burden and unlike most fungal pathogens affect immunocompetent hosts. To examine the origin of virulence of these fungal pathogens, we compared genomes of classic systemic, opportunistic, and non-pathogenic species, including Emmonsia and two basal branching, non-pathogenic species in the Ajellomycetaceae, Helicocarpus griseus and Polytolypa hystricis. We found that gene families related to plant degradation, secondary metabolites synthesis, and amino acid and lipid metabolism are retained in H. griseus and P. hystricis. While genes involved in the virulence of dimorphic pathogenic fungi are conserved in saprophytes, changes in the copy number of proteases, kinases and transcription factors in systemic dimorphic relative to non-dimorphic species may have aided the evolution of specialized gene regulatory programs to rapidly adapt to higher temperatures and new nutritional environments. Notably, both of the basal branching, non-pathogenic species appear homothallic, with both mating type locus idiomorphs fused at a single locus, whereas all related pathogenic species are heterothallic. These differences revealed that independent changes in nutrient acquisition capacity have occurred in the Onygenaceae and Ajellomycetaceae, and underlie how the dimorphic pathogens have adapted to the human host and decreased their capacity for growth in environmental niches.

AB - Dimorphic fungal pathogens cause a significant human disease burden and unlike most fungal pathogens affect immunocompetent hosts. To examine the origin of virulence of these fungal pathogens, we compared genomes of classic systemic, opportunistic, and non-pathogenic species, including Emmonsia and two basal branching, non-pathogenic species in the Ajellomycetaceae, Helicocarpus griseus and Polytolypa hystricis. We found that gene families related to plant degradation, secondary metabolites synthesis, and amino acid and lipid metabolism are retained in H. griseus and P. hystricis. While genes involved in the virulence of dimorphic pathogenic fungi are conserved in saprophytes, changes in the copy number of proteases, kinases and transcription factors in systemic dimorphic relative to non-dimorphic species may have aided the evolution of specialized gene regulatory programs to rapidly adapt to higher temperatures and new nutritional environments. Notably, both of the basal branching, non-pathogenic species appear homothallic, with both mating type locus idiomorphs fused at a single locus, whereas all related pathogenic species are heterothallic. These differences revealed that independent changes in nutrient acquisition capacity have occurred in the Onygenaceae and Ajellomycetaceae, and underlie how the dimorphic pathogens have adapted to the human host and decreased their capacity for growth in environmental niches.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85044224484&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85044224484&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/s41598-018-22816-6

DO - 10.1038/s41598-018-22816-6

M3 - Article

C2 - 29540755

AN - SCOPUS:85044224484

VL - 8

JO - Scientific Reports

JF - Scientific Reports

SN - 2045-2322

IS - 1

M1 - 4473

ER -