Emergent Hybrid Treatment of a Ruptured Scalp Arteriovenous Fistula with Eyelid involvement: Technical Note

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Abstract

Background Scalp arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are a rare vascular disease usually presenting as a progressively increasing pulsating mass in the scalp. These lesions can be associated with mild to severe complications, including congestive heart failure. If ruptures, this pathology constitutes a life-threatening medical emergency because of its potential to cause severe bleeding and acute anemia. Methods We describe the case of a young woman with a ruptured Yokouchi type C scalp AVF with eyelid involvement. Results The patient presented with hypovolemic shock and acute anemia due to severe bleeding from the lesion. Emergent treatment through a combined endovascular and open surgical approach was required to stop bleeding and stabilize the patient. Conclusions Emergent and effective treatment is required to stop bleeding when a scalp AVF ruptures. A combination of endovascular embolization and microsurgical excision of the shunt is a treatment option.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology

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