Comparison of immunodiagnostic assays for the rapid diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis in dogs

Diego H Caceres, Mark D Lindsley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Coccidioidomycosis is a disease caused by the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides spp., which affects humans and a variety of animal species, including domestic dogs. In dogs, accurate diagnosis could provide a substantial improvement on the quality of canine life, as well as an advancement in the mapping of regions endemic for coccidioidomycosis. The purpose of this study was to compare immunodiagnostic assays for anti-Coccidioides antibody (Ab) detection in dogs' serum. Three commercially available immunodiagnostic assays (IMMY®; Norman, OK, USA) were evaluated, including the sōna Coccidioides Ab Lateral Flow Assay (LFA), Coccidioides IDCF immunodiffusion assay (IDCF), and the Clarus Coccidioides Ab Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA). Assays were evaluated using 98 dog serum samples: 29 from dogs with coccidioidomycosis, 15 from dogs diagnosed with histoplasmosis, 10 from dogs diagnosed with blastomycosis, and 44 from dogs without a fungal disease. Using specimens from dogs with coccidioidomycosis, the IDCF had an accuracy of 92% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 85-96%), the EIA had an accuracy of 91% (95% CI = 83-96%), and the LFA displayed an accuracy of 82% (95% CI = 73-89%). Using Kappa analysis, the agreement between LFA and EIA was 0.59 (95% CI = 0.42-0.75), that between LFA and IDCF was 0.64 (95% CI = 0.48-0.79), and that between EIA and IDCF was 0.79 (95% CI = 0.64-0.90). Most cross-reactions were observed in dogs with histoplasmosis. Compared with EIA and IDCF, the LFA requires substantially less laboratory equipment and infrastructure and rapidly produces results, offering a substantial improvement for the initial screening of coccidioidomycosis in dogs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Fungi
Volume8
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 13 2022

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