This study investigated the associations of muscular fitness and various indicators of body fatness with cardio-metabolic risk factors and determined the muscular strength and body fatness thresholds for detecting a high risk of cardio-metabolic dysfunction in young adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1798 collegiate students (61.5% females, mean age 20.5 years). Muscular fitness was determined by using a handgrip strength test and normalized grip strength (NGS = handgrip (kg)/body mass (kg)). Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), percentage of fat mass (BF%), fat-mass index (FMI), and waist-to-height ratio (WHR) were also included as body fatness measurements. A high cardio-metabolic risk cluster was derived by assessing triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, fasting glucose, and blood pressure. Logistic regression models showed that men and women with lower NGS had an increased cardio-metabolic risk odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 2.9, p = 0.006, and OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.5, p = 0.036, respectively). In both sexes, higher levels of all fatness parameters were also associated with increased cardio-metabolic risk (p < 0.001). In both men and women, high FMI had the highest OR for clustered risk (OR = 4.7, 95% CI 2.6 to 8.4, and OR = 7.3, 95% CI 3.4 to 9.7, p < 0.001, respectively). Combined analysis showed that unfitness (lower NGS) and high fat had the highest OR for WC and FMI in men and women, respectively (OR = 5.5, 95% CI 2.6 to 11.4, OR = 7.7, 95% CI 2.3 to 15.8, p < 0.01). Muscular strength and body fatness are independently and jointly associated with increased cardiometabolic risk in young adults, which suggests that both are predictor variables for this.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science
- Nutrition and Dietetics