Tails of the City: Caudal Autotomy in the Tropical Lizard, Anolis cristatellus, in Urban and Natural Areas of Puerto Rico

R.K. Tyler, K.M. Winchell, L.J. Revell

Resultado de la investigación: Contribución a RevistaArtículo

4 Citas (Scopus)

Resumen

Urbanization creates drastic changes in habitat and presents considerable challenges and new sources of predation to urban-dwelling herpetofauna. Research on lizards has documented increased rates of mortality in urban areas due to generalist predators such as raccoons, feral cats, and domestic animals. Caudal autotomy (self-amputation of the tail) is a defense mechanism used to escape predation in a wide range and large number of lizard species. The tail is autotomized to evade capture, and in most species with autotomy, the tail is regenerated partially or completely. Caudal autotomy can be used as an indirect measure of predation environment; however, few prior studies have used lizard caudal autotomy to measure the predation environment of urban areas. We compared caudal autotomy rates in the Puerto Rican crested anole, Anolis cristatellus, between urban and natural sites in four Puerto Rican municipalities. Across all municipalities, we found the frequency of caudal autotomy and regeneration to be consistently, significantly higher in urban than in natural areas. Our findings suggest that differences exist in the predation regime experienced by lizards in urban and natural habitats across the island of Puerto Rico. At this time, however, we are not able to identify the specific nature of the difference in predation regime between sites. The difference in autotomy rate that we found may be driven by higher predation pressure in urban areas, differences in the predator assemblage between sites, or simply lower predator efficiency in urban habitats. © Copyright 2016 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.
Idioma originalEnglish (US)
Páginas (desde-hasta)435-441
Número de páginas7
PublicaciónJournal of Herpetology
Volumen50
N.º3
DOI
EstadoPublished - 2016

Huella dactilar

autotomy
Anolis
Puerto Rico
lizard
lizards
tail
urban area
predation
urban areas
predator
predators
habitats
herpetofauna
amputation
Procyon lotor
defense mechanism
habitat
city
natural area
defense mechanisms

Citar esto

@article{e9f40934bf4f47a6a989221087ffdeb3,
title = "Tails of the City: Caudal Autotomy in the Tropical Lizard, Anolis cristatellus, in Urban and Natural Areas of Puerto Rico",
abstract = "Urbanization creates drastic changes in habitat and presents considerable challenges and new sources of predation to urban-dwelling herpetofauna. Research on lizards has documented increased rates of mortality in urban areas due to generalist predators such as raccoons, feral cats, and domestic animals. Caudal autotomy (self-amputation of the tail) is a defense mechanism used to escape predation in a wide range and large number of lizard species. The tail is autotomized to evade capture, and in most species with autotomy, the tail is regenerated partially or completely. Caudal autotomy can be used as an indirect measure of predation environment; however, few prior studies have used lizard caudal autotomy to measure the predation environment of urban areas. We compared caudal autotomy rates in the Puerto Rican crested anole, Anolis cristatellus, between urban and natural sites in four Puerto Rican municipalities. Across all municipalities, we found the frequency of caudal autotomy and regeneration to be consistently, significantly higher in urban than in natural areas. Our findings suggest that differences exist in the predation regime experienced by lizards in urban and natural habitats across the island of Puerto Rico. At this time, however, we are not able to identify the specific nature of the difference in predation regime between sites. The difference in autotomy rate that we found may be driven by higher predation pressure in urban areas, differences in the predator assemblage between sites, or simply lower predator efficiency in urban habitats. {\circledC} Copyright 2016 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.",
author = "R.K. Tyler and K.M. Winchell and L.J. Revell",
note = "Export Date: 17 April 2018 CODEN: JHERA Correspondence Address: Revell, L.J.; Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts BostonUnited States; email: liam.revell@umb.edu Funding details: University of Massachusetts Boston Funding details: 2012-IC-049, NSF, National Science Foundation Funding details: 2012001 Funding text: Acknowledgments.-The authors thank J. Ackerman, F. Bird- Pic? , R. Papa, A. Puente-Rol? n, Y. Stuart, A. Kamath, G. Reynolds, and S. Vega-Castillo for advice in Puerto Rico and on data collection and analysis; Z. Bergeron, C. Berrocal, J. Cohen, D. L? pez, D. Mu? iz, L. Neel, S. Prado-Irwin, A. Puente-Rol? n, Q. Quach, and T. Spillane for assistance in the field; the Universidad Interamericana, Arecibo for allowing us to conduct portions of this research on their campus; and the National Science Foundation (DEB 1354044) for funding. This study was conducted under Permit 2012-IC-049 (O-VS-PVS15-SJ-00542- 07062012) from the Puerto Rico Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Ambientales (DRNA) and IACUC Protocol 2012001 issued by the University of Massachusetts Boston. References: Andren, H., Effects of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals in landscapes with different proportions of suitable habitat: A review (1994) Oikos, 71, pp. 355-366; Arnold, E., Evolutionary aspects of tail shedding in lizards and their relatives (1984) Journal of Natural History, 18, pp. 127-169; Avil{\'e} S-Rodr{\'i}guez, K., (2015) Do Urban Environments Influence Antipredator and Foraging Behavior of the Lizard Anolis Cristatellus [MA Thesis]?, , Unpubl. master's thesis, University of Rhode Island, USA; Bateman, P.W., Fleming, P.A., To cut a long tail short: A review of lizard caudal autotomy studies carried out over the last 20 years (2009) Journal of Zoology, 277, pp. 1-14; Bateman, P.W., Fleming, P.A., Frequency of tail loss reflects variation in predation levels, predator efficiency, and the behaviour of three populations of brown anoles (2011) Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 103, pp. 648-656; Bateman, P.W., Fleming, P.A., Big city life: Carnivores in urban environments (2012) Journal of Zoology, 287, pp. 1-23; Bellairs, A.D.A., Bryant, S.V., Autotomy and regeneration in reptiles (1985) Biology of the Reptilia, 15, pp. 301-410. , C. Gans and F. Billet (eds.) Development B. Wiley, USA; Blamires, S.J., Factors influencing the escape response of an arboreal agamid lizard of tropical Australia (Lophognathus temporalis) in an urban environment (1999) Canadian Journal of Zoology, 12, pp. 1998-2003; Bonnet, X., Naulleau, G., Shine, R., The dangers of leaving home: Dispersal and mortality in snakes (1999) Biological Conservation, 89, pp. 39-50; Chapple, D.G., Swain, R., Caudal autotomy does not influence thermoregulatory characteristics in the metallic skink, Niveoscincus metallicus (2004) Amphibia-Reptilia, 25, pp. 326-333; Chapple, D.G., Swain, R., Inter-populational variation in the cost of autotomy in the metallic skink (Niveoscincus metallicus) (2004) Journal of Zoology, 264, pp. 411-418; Clause, A.R., Capaldi, E.A., Caudal autotomy and regeneration in lizards (2006) Journal of Experimental Zoology, 305, pp. 965-973; Coltman, D.W., O'Donoghue, P., Jorgenson, J.T., Hogg, J.T., Strobeck, C., Festa-Blanchet, M., Undesirable evolutionary consequences of trophy hunting (2003) Nature, 426, pp. 655-658; Cromie, G.L., Chapple, D.G., Is partial tail loss the key to a complete understanding of caudal autotomy? (2013) Austral Ecology, 38, pp. 452-455; Daniels, C.B., Flaherty, S.P., Simbotwe, M.P., Tail size and effectiveness of autotomy in a lizard (1986) Journal of Herpetology, 20, pp. 93-96; Dial, B.E., Fitzpatrick, L.C., Predator escape success in tailed versus tailless Scincella lateralis (Sauria: Scincidae) (1983) Animal Behaviour, 32, pp. 301-302; Ditchkoff, S.T., Animal behavior in urban ecosystems: Modifications due to human-induced stress (2006) Urban Ecosystems, 9, pp. 5-12; Etheridge, R., Lizard caudal vertebrae (1967) Copeia, 1967, pp. 699-721; Fahrig, L., Pedlar, J.H., Pope, S.E., Taylor, P.D., Wegner, J.F., Effect of road traffic on amphibian density (1995) Biological Conservation, 73, pp. 177-182; Fischer, J.D., Cleeton, S.H., Lyons, T.P., Miller, J.R., Urbanization and the predation paradox: The role of trophic dynamics in structuring vertebrate communities (2012) BioScience, 62, pp. 809-818; Fox, S.F., Perea-Fox, S., Franco, R.C., Development of the tail autotomy adaptation in lizards under disparate levels of predation at high and low elevations in Mexico (1994) Southwestern Naturalist, 39, pp. 311-322; Gillis, G.B., Bonvini, L.A., Irschick, D.J., Losing stability: Tail loss and jumping in the arboreal lizard Anolis carolinensis (2009) Journal of Experimental Biology, 212, pp. 604-609; Gould, W.A., Alarćon, C., Fevold, B., Jim{\'e}nez, M.E., Martinuzzi, S., Potts, G., Ones, M., Ventosa, E., (2008) Puerto Rico Gap Analysis Project. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry, R{\'i}o Piedras, Puerto Rico; Graves, G., Greater Antillean grackle (Quiscalus Niger) preys on Anolis grahami (2006) Journal of Caribbean Ornithology, 19, pp. 56-58; Hendry, A.P., Wenburg, J.K., Bentzen, P., Volk, E.C., Quinn, T.P., Rapid evolution of reproductive isolation in the wild: Evidence from introduced salmon (2000) Science, 290, pp. 516-518; Irschick, D., Losos, J.B., A comparative analysis of the ecological significance of maximal locomotor performance in Caribbean Anolis lizards (1998) Evolution, 52, pp. 219-226; Koenig, J., Shine, R., Shea, G., The dangers of life in the city: Patterns of activity, injury, and mortality of suburban lizards (Tiliqua scincoides) (2002) Journal of Herpetology, 36, pp. 62-68; Kuo, C., Gillis, G.B., Irschick, D.J., Take this broken tail and learn to jump: The ability to recover from reduced in-air stability in tailless green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis [Squamata: Dactyloidae]) (2012) Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 107, pp. 583-592; Langerhans, R.B., Knouft, J.H., Losos, J.B., Shared and unique features of diversification in greater Antillean Anolis ecomorphs (2006) Evolution, 60, pp. 362-369; Losos, J.B., The evolution of form and function: Morphology and locomotor performance in West Indian Anolis lizards (1990) Evolution, 44, pp. 1189-1203; Losos, J.B., (2009) Lizards in An Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles, , University of California Press, USA; Losos, J.B., Irschick, D.J., Schoener, T.W., Adaptation and constraint in the evolution of specialization of Bahamian Anolis lizards (1994) Evolution, 48, pp. 1786-1798; Losos, J.B., Schoener, T.W., Warheit, K.I., Creer, D., Experimental studies of adaptive differentiation in Bahamian Anolis lizards (2001) Genetica, 112-113, pp. 399-415; Lovely, K.R., Mahler, D.L., Revell, L.J., The rate and pattern of tail autotomy in five species of Puerto Rican anoles (2010) Evolutionary Ecology Research, 12, pp. 67-88; Marnocha, E., Pollinger, J., Smith, T.B., Human-induced morphological shifts in an island lizard (2011) Evolutionary Applications, 4, pp. 388-396; McConnachie, S., Whiting, M.J., Costs associated with tail autotomy in an ambush foraging lizard, Cordylus melanotus melanotus (2003) African Zoology, 38, pp. 57-65; McKinney, M.L., Urbanization, biodiversity, and conservation (2002) BioScience, 52, pp. 883-890; McKinney, M.L., Urbanization as a major cause of biotic homogenization (2006) Biological Conservation, 127, pp. 247-260; Medel, R.G., Jim{\'e}nez, J.E., Fox, S.F., Jaks{\'i}c, F.M., Experimental evidence that high population frequencies of lizard tail autotomy indicate inefficient predation (1988) Oikos, 53, pp. 321-324; Miller, J., Hobbs, R., Conservation where people live and work (2002) Conservation Biology, 16, pp. 330-337; NATIONALWEATHER SERVICE., (2010) Mean Annual Precipitation 1981-2010, , http://www.srh.noaa.gov/sju/?n=mean_annual_precipitation2, Avai lable at Archived by WebCite at http://www. webcitation.org/6aPeUFOtR; Naya, D.E., Veloso, C., Mu{\~n}, O.Z.J.L.P., Bozinovic, F., Some vaguely explored (but not trivial) costs of tail autotomy in lizards (2007) Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 146, pp. 189-193; Olsen, E.M., Heino, M., Lilly, G.R., Morgan, M.J., Brattey, J., Ernande, B., Dieckmann, U., Maturation trends indicative of rapid evolution preceded the collapse of northern cod (2004) Nature, 428, pp. 932-935; Prugh, L.R., Stoner, C.J., Epps, C.W., Bean, W.T., Ripple, W.J., Laliberte, A.S., Brashares, J.S., The rise of the mesopredator (2009) BioScience, 59, pp. 779-791. , R CORE TEAM. 2015. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria; Rivero, J., (1998) Los Anfibios y Reptiles de Puerto Rico, , University of Puerto Rico Press, Puerto Rico; Rohlf, F.J., (2013) TpsDIG2 (Software), , http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/morph/soft-dataacq.html, Available from; Russell, A.P., Bauer, A.M., The m. Caudifemoralis longus and its relationship to caudal autotomy and locomotion in lizards (Reptilia: Sauria) (1992) Journal of Zoology, 227, pp. 127-143; Schoener, T.W., Inferring the properties of predation and other injury-producing agents from injury frequencies (1979) Ecology, 60, pp. 1110-1115; Shine, R., Webb, J., Fitzgerald, M., Sumner, J., The impact of bush rock removal on an endangered snake species, Hoplocephalus bungaroides (Serpentes: Elapidae) (1998) Wildlife Research, 25, pp. 285-295; Shochat, E., Warren, P.S., Faeth, S.H., McIntyre, N.E., From patterns to emerging processes in mechanistic urban ecology (2006) Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21, pp. 186-191; Sol, D., Lapiedra, O., Gonz{\'a} Lez-Lagos, C., Behavioural adjustments for a life in the city (2013) Animal Behaviour, 85, pp. 1101-1112; Stockwell, C.A., Hendry, A.P., Kinnison, M.T., Contemporary evolution meets conservation biology (2003) Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18, pp. 94-101; Su{\'a} Rez, A., Vic{\'e}ns, I., Lugo, A.E., Composici{\'o} n de especies y estructura del bosque k{\'a} rstico de San Patricio, Guaynabo, Puerto Rico (2005) Acta Cient{\'i}fica., 19, pp. 7-22; UNITED NATIONS, DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS, POPULATION DIVISION., (2014) World Urbanization Prospects, the 2014 Revision, , Final Report with Annex Tables. United Nations, USA; U.S. CENSUS BUREAU., (2012) 2010 Census of Population and Housing, Summary Population and Housing Characteristics, CPH-1-53, Puerto Rico., , U.S. Government Printing Office, USA; Vitt, L.J., Congdon, J.D., Dickson, N.A., Adaptive strategies and energetics of tail autotomy in lizards (1977) Ecology, 58, pp. 326-337; Williams, E.E., Ecomorphs, faunas, island size, and diverse end points in island radiations of Anolis (1983) Lizard Ecology. Studies of AModel Organism, pp. 132-151. , R. B. Huey, E. R. Pianka, and T.W. Schoener (eds.) Harvard University Press, USA",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1670/15-039",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "50",
pages = "435--441",
journal = "Journal of Herpetology",
issn = "0022-1511",
publisher = "Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles",
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}

Tails of the City: Caudal Autotomy in the Tropical Lizard, Anolis cristatellus, in Urban and Natural Areas of Puerto Rico. / Tyler, R.K.; Winchell, K.M.; Revell, L.J.

En: Journal of Herpetology, Vol. 50, N.º 3, 2016, p. 435-441.

Resultado de la investigación: Contribución a RevistaArtículo

TY - JOUR

T1 - Tails of the City: Caudal Autotomy in the Tropical Lizard, Anolis cristatellus, in Urban and Natural Areas of Puerto Rico

AU - Tyler, R.K.

AU - Winchell, K.M.

AU - Revell, L.J.

N1 - Export Date: 17 April 2018 CODEN: JHERA Correspondence Address: Revell, L.J.; Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts BostonUnited States; email: liam.revell@umb.edu Funding details: University of Massachusetts Boston Funding details: 2012-IC-049, NSF, National Science Foundation Funding details: 2012001 Funding text: Acknowledgments.-The authors thank J. Ackerman, F. Bird- Pic? , R. Papa, A. Puente-Rol? n, Y. Stuart, A. Kamath, G. Reynolds, and S. Vega-Castillo for advice in Puerto Rico and on data collection and analysis; Z. Bergeron, C. Berrocal, J. Cohen, D. L? pez, D. Mu? iz, L. Neel, S. Prado-Irwin, A. Puente-Rol? n, Q. Quach, and T. Spillane for assistance in the field; the Universidad Interamericana, Arecibo for allowing us to conduct portions of this research on their campus; and the National Science Foundation (DEB 1354044) for funding. This study was conducted under Permit 2012-IC-049 (O-VS-PVS15-SJ-00542- 07062012) from the Puerto Rico Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Ambientales (DRNA) and IACUC Protocol 2012001 issued by the University of Massachusetts Boston. References: Andren, H., Effects of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals in landscapes with different proportions of suitable habitat: A review (1994) Oikos, 71, pp. 355-366; Arnold, E., Evolutionary aspects of tail shedding in lizards and their relatives (1984) Journal of Natural History, 18, pp. 127-169; Avilé S-Rodríguez, K., (2015) Do Urban Environments Influence Antipredator and Foraging Behavior of the Lizard Anolis Cristatellus [MA Thesis]?, , Unpubl. master's thesis, University of Rhode Island, USA; Bateman, P.W., Fleming, P.A., To cut a long tail short: A review of lizard caudal autotomy studies carried out over the last 20 years (2009) Journal of Zoology, 277, pp. 1-14; Bateman, P.W., Fleming, P.A., Frequency of tail loss reflects variation in predation levels, predator efficiency, and the behaviour of three populations of brown anoles (2011) Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 103, pp. 648-656; Bateman, P.W., Fleming, P.A., Big city life: Carnivores in urban environments (2012) Journal of Zoology, 287, pp. 1-23; Bellairs, A.D.A., Bryant, S.V., Autotomy and regeneration in reptiles (1985) Biology of the Reptilia, 15, pp. 301-410. , C. Gans and F. Billet (eds.) Development B. Wiley, USA; Blamires, S.J., Factors influencing the escape response of an arboreal agamid lizard of tropical Australia (Lophognathus temporalis) in an urban environment (1999) Canadian Journal of Zoology, 12, pp. 1998-2003; Bonnet, X., Naulleau, G., Shine, R., The dangers of leaving home: Dispersal and mortality in snakes (1999) Biological Conservation, 89, pp. 39-50; Chapple, D.G., Swain, R., Caudal autotomy does not influence thermoregulatory characteristics in the metallic skink, Niveoscincus metallicus (2004) Amphibia-Reptilia, 25, pp. 326-333; Chapple, D.G., Swain, R., Inter-populational variation in the cost of autotomy in the metallic skink (Niveoscincus metallicus) (2004) Journal of Zoology, 264, pp. 411-418; Clause, A.R., Capaldi, E.A., Caudal autotomy and regeneration in lizards (2006) Journal of Experimental Zoology, 305, pp. 965-973; Coltman, D.W., O'Donoghue, P., Jorgenson, J.T., Hogg, J.T., Strobeck, C., Festa-Blanchet, M., Undesirable evolutionary consequences of trophy hunting (2003) Nature, 426, pp. 655-658; Cromie, G.L., Chapple, D.G., Is partial tail loss the key to a complete understanding of caudal autotomy? (2013) Austral Ecology, 38, pp. 452-455; Daniels, C.B., Flaherty, S.P., Simbotwe, M.P., Tail size and effectiveness of autotomy in a lizard (1986) Journal of Herpetology, 20, pp. 93-96; Dial, B.E., Fitzpatrick, L.C., Predator escape success in tailed versus tailless Scincella lateralis (Sauria: Scincidae) (1983) Animal Behaviour, 32, pp. 301-302; Ditchkoff, S.T., Animal behavior in urban ecosystems: Modifications due to human-induced stress (2006) Urban Ecosystems, 9, pp. 5-12; Etheridge, R., Lizard caudal vertebrae (1967) Copeia, 1967, pp. 699-721; Fahrig, L., Pedlar, J.H., Pope, S.E., Taylor, P.D., Wegner, J.F., Effect of road traffic on amphibian density (1995) Biological Conservation, 73, pp. 177-182; Fischer, J.D., Cleeton, S.H., Lyons, T.P., Miller, J.R., Urbanization and the predation paradox: The role of trophic dynamics in structuring vertebrate communities (2012) BioScience, 62, pp. 809-818; Fox, S.F., Perea-Fox, S., Franco, R.C., Development of the tail autotomy adaptation in lizards under disparate levels of predation at high and low elevations in Mexico (1994) Southwestern Naturalist, 39, pp. 311-322; Gillis, G.B., Bonvini, L.A., Irschick, D.J., Losing stability: Tail loss and jumping in the arboreal lizard Anolis carolinensis (2009) Journal of Experimental Biology, 212, pp. 604-609; Gould, W.A., Alarćon, C., Fevold, B., Jiménez, M.E., Martinuzzi, S., Potts, G., Ones, M., Ventosa, E., (2008) Puerto Rico Gap Analysis Project. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico; Graves, G., Greater Antillean grackle (Quiscalus Niger) preys on Anolis grahami (2006) Journal of Caribbean Ornithology, 19, pp. 56-58; Hendry, A.P., Wenburg, J.K., Bentzen, P., Volk, E.C., Quinn, T.P., Rapid evolution of reproductive isolation in the wild: Evidence from introduced salmon (2000) Science, 290, pp. 516-518; Irschick, D., Losos, J.B., A comparative analysis of the ecological significance of maximal locomotor performance in Caribbean Anolis lizards (1998) Evolution, 52, pp. 219-226; Koenig, J., Shine, R., Shea, G., The dangers of life in the city: Patterns of activity, injury, and mortality of suburban lizards (Tiliqua scincoides) (2002) Journal of Herpetology, 36, pp. 62-68; Kuo, C., Gillis, G.B., Irschick, D.J., Take this broken tail and learn to jump: The ability to recover from reduced in-air stability in tailless green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis [Squamata: Dactyloidae]) (2012) Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 107, pp. 583-592; Langerhans, R.B., Knouft, J.H., Losos, J.B., Shared and unique features of diversification in greater Antillean Anolis ecomorphs (2006) Evolution, 60, pp. 362-369; Losos, J.B., The evolution of form and function: Morphology and locomotor performance in West Indian Anolis lizards (1990) Evolution, 44, pp. 1189-1203; Losos, J.B., (2009) Lizards in An Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles, , University of California Press, USA; Losos, J.B., Irschick, D.J., Schoener, T.W., Adaptation and constraint in the evolution of specialization of Bahamian Anolis lizards (1994) Evolution, 48, pp. 1786-1798; Losos, J.B., Schoener, T.W., Warheit, K.I., Creer, D., Experimental studies of adaptive differentiation in Bahamian Anolis lizards (2001) Genetica, 112-113, pp. 399-415; Lovely, K.R., Mahler, D.L., Revell, L.J., The rate and pattern of tail autotomy in five species of Puerto Rican anoles (2010) Evolutionary Ecology Research, 12, pp. 67-88; Marnocha, E., Pollinger, J., Smith, T.B., Human-induced morphological shifts in an island lizard (2011) Evolutionary Applications, 4, pp. 388-396; McConnachie, S., Whiting, M.J., Costs associated with tail autotomy in an ambush foraging lizard, Cordylus melanotus melanotus (2003) African Zoology, 38, pp. 57-65; McKinney, M.L., Urbanization, biodiversity, and conservation (2002) BioScience, 52, pp. 883-890; McKinney, M.L., Urbanization as a major cause of biotic homogenization (2006) Biological Conservation, 127, pp. 247-260; Medel, R.G., Jiménez, J.E., Fox, S.F., Jaksíc, F.M., Experimental evidence that high population frequencies of lizard tail autotomy indicate inefficient predation (1988) Oikos, 53, pp. 321-324; Miller, J., Hobbs, R., Conservation where people live and work (2002) Conservation Biology, 16, pp. 330-337; NATIONALWEATHER SERVICE., (2010) Mean Annual Precipitation 1981-2010, , http://www.srh.noaa.gov/sju/?n=mean_annual_precipitation2, Avai lable at Archived by WebCite at http://www. webcitation.org/6aPeUFOtR; Naya, D.E., Veloso, C., Muñ, O.Z.J.L.P., Bozinovic, F., Some vaguely explored (but not trivial) costs of tail autotomy in lizards (2007) Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 146, pp. 189-193; Olsen, E.M., Heino, M., Lilly, G.R., Morgan, M.J., Brattey, J., Ernande, B., Dieckmann, U., Maturation trends indicative of rapid evolution preceded the collapse of northern cod (2004) Nature, 428, pp. 932-935; Prugh, L.R., Stoner, C.J., Epps, C.W., Bean, W.T., Ripple, W.J., Laliberte, A.S., Brashares, J.S., The rise of the mesopredator (2009) BioScience, 59, pp. 779-791. , R CORE TEAM. 2015. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria; Rivero, J., (1998) Los Anfibios y Reptiles de Puerto Rico, , University of Puerto Rico Press, Puerto Rico; Rohlf, F.J., (2013) TpsDIG2 (Software), , http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/morph/soft-dataacq.html, Available from; Russell, A.P., Bauer, A.M., The m. Caudifemoralis longus and its relationship to caudal autotomy and locomotion in lizards (Reptilia: Sauria) (1992) Journal of Zoology, 227, pp. 127-143; Schoener, T.W., Inferring the properties of predation and other injury-producing agents from injury frequencies (1979) Ecology, 60, pp. 1110-1115; Shine, R., Webb, J., Fitzgerald, M., Sumner, J., The impact of bush rock removal on an endangered snake species, Hoplocephalus bungaroides (Serpentes: Elapidae) (1998) Wildlife Research, 25, pp. 285-295; Shochat, E., Warren, P.S., Faeth, S.H., McIntyre, N.E., From patterns to emerging processes in mechanistic urban ecology (2006) Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21, pp. 186-191; Sol, D., Lapiedra, O., Gonzá Lez-Lagos, C., Behavioural adjustments for a life in the city (2013) Animal Behaviour, 85, pp. 1101-1112; Stockwell, C.A., Hendry, A.P., Kinnison, M.T., Contemporary evolution meets conservation biology (2003) Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18, pp. 94-101; Suá Rez, A., Vicéns, I., Lugo, A.E., Composició n de especies y estructura del bosque ká rstico de San Patricio, Guaynabo, Puerto Rico (2005) Acta Científica., 19, pp. 7-22; UNITED NATIONS, DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS, POPULATION DIVISION., (2014) World Urbanization Prospects, the 2014 Revision, , Final Report with Annex Tables. United Nations, USA; U.S. CENSUS BUREAU., (2012) 2010 Census of Population and Housing, Summary Population and Housing Characteristics, CPH-1-53, Puerto Rico., , U.S. Government Printing Office, USA; Vitt, L.J., Congdon, J.D., Dickson, N.A., Adaptive strategies and energetics of tail autotomy in lizards (1977) Ecology, 58, pp. 326-337; Williams, E.E., Ecomorphs, faunas, island size, and diverse end points in island radiations of Anolis (1983) Lizard Ecology. Studies of AModel Organism, pp. 132-151. , R. B. Huey, E. R. Pianka, and T.W. Schoener (eds.) Harvard University Press, USA

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Urbanization creates drastic changes in habitat and presents considerable challenges and new sources of predation to urban-dwelling herpetofauna. Research on lizards has documented increased rates of mortality in urban areas due to generalist predators such as raccoons, feral cats, and domestic animals. Caudal autotomy (self-amputation of the tail) is a defense mechanism used to escape predation in a wide range and large number of lizard species. The tail is autotomized to evade capture, and in most species with autotomy, the tail is regenerated partially or completely. Caudal autotomy can be used as an indirect measure of predation environment; however, few prior studies have used lizard caudal autotomy to measure the predation environment of urban areas. We compared caudal autotomy rates in the Puerto Rican crested anole, Anolis cristatellus, between urban and natural sites in four Puerto Rican municipalities. Across all municipalities, we found the frequency of caudal autotomy and regeneration to be consistently, significantly higher in urban than in natural areas. Our findings suggest that differences exist in the predation regime experienced by lizards in urban and natural habitats across the island of Puerto Rico. At this time, however, we are not able to identify the specific nature of the difference in predation regime between sites. The difference in autotomy rate that we found may be driven by higher predation pressure in urban areas, differences in the predator assemblage between sites, or simply lower predator efficiency in urban habitats. © Copyright 2016 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

AB - Urbanization creates drastic changes in habitat and presents considerable challenges and new sources of predation to urban-dwelling herpetofauna. Research on lizards has documented increased rates of mortality in urban areas due to generalist predators such as raccoons, feral cats, and domestic animals. Caudal autotomy (self-amputation of the tail) is a defense mechanism used to escape predation in a wide range and large number of lizard species. The tail is autotomized to evade capture, and in most species with autotomy, the tail is regenerated partially or completely. Caudal autotomy can be used as an indirect measure of predation environment; however, few prior studies have used lizard caudal autotomy to measure the predation environment of urban areas. We compared caudal autotomy rates in the Puerto Rican crested anole, Anolis cristatellus, between urban and natural sites in four Puerto Rican municipalities. Across all municipalities, we found the frequency of caudal autotomy and regeneration to be consistently, significantly higher in urban than in natural areas. Our findings suggest that differences exist in the predation regime experienced by lizards in urban and natural habitats across the island of Puerto Rico. At this time, however, we are not able to identify the specific nature of the difference in predation regime between sites. The difference in autotomy rate that we found may be driven by higher predation pressure in urban areas, differences in the predator assemblage between sites, or simply lower predator efficiency in urban habitats. © Copyright 2016 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

U2 - 10.1670/15-039

DO - 10.1670/15-039

M3 - Article

VL - 50

SP - 435

EP - 441

JO - Journal of Herpetology

JF - Journal of Herpetology

SN - 0022-1511

IS - 3

ER -