Scientific medicine and public health in nineteenth-century latin america

Emilio Quevedo, Francisco Gutiérrez

Resultado de la investigación: Contribución a libro /Tipo informe o reporteCapítulo

4 Citas (Scopus)

Resumen

Medical concepts and clinical attitudes characteristic of the Enlightenment- called "proto-clinical" by Michel Foucault-changed signifi cantly in postrevolutionary France during the late eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth.1 Inside the modernizing trends of Renaissance and baroque medicine, such as iatrochemistry, iatromechanics, and vitalism, and nosologic botany-oriented systems,2 the medical system proposed by Hermann Boerhaave stands out for its hegemonic position. This system, nurtured as it was by earlier medical developments, integrated elements from the basic sciences of the time (anatomy, modern physics, and a chemistry free from iatrochemical interpretations) with pathology based on clinical observation, just as Thomas Sydenham had proposed several years earlier. Boerhaave founded in Leyden one of the most prestigious medical schools in Enlightenment Europe, and from there his disciples spread his theories throughout the continent.3 In spite of this, the multitude of classifi cations of illness and an inability to completely overcome Hippocratic and Galenic humoral pathology continued to characterize Enlightenment medicine, which maintained the elitist and aristocratic character inherited from medieval times. New political, social, and economic structures brought about by the French Revolution, however, created the conditions for a decisive rupture within the medical tradition of the ancien régime.4 It closed the hospitals and medical schools, which were considered the ramparts of the old model.5 In March 1791, in the name of individual liberty, the Legislature decreed that everyone was to be allowed the free exercise of any trade, including medicine. On August 18, 1792, that same body did away with universities and other academic centers.6 This created a crisis in public health.7 This crisis ended in 1794, when, on a totally different basis, new medical schools and hospitals were opened.8 A new course was embarked on that imposed practical instruction and turned hospitals into the center of medical life; teaching simultaneous with medical attention in hospitals overturned the almost artisanal, dominant forms typical of instruction in the medical schools of the ancien régime. © 2006 by the University of Texas Press. All rights reserved.
Idioma originalEnglish (US)
Título de la publicación alojadaScience in Latin America. A History
EditorialUniversity of Texas Press
Número de páginas33
ISBN (versión digital)9780292712713
ISBN (versión impresa)9780292712713
EstadoPublished - dic 1 2006

Huella dactilar

Scientific Medicine
Public Health
Latin America
Medical School
Enlightenment
Medicine
Pathology
Exercise
Baroque
Elitist
Illness
France
Signifier
Disciples
Physics
Medieval Period
French Revolution
Liberty
Rupture
Teaching

Citar esto

Quevedo, E., & Gutiérrez, F. (2006). Scientific medicine and public health in nineteenth-century latin america. En Science in Latin America. A History University of Texas Press.
Quevedo, Emilio ; Gutiérrez, Francisco. / Scientific medicine and public health in nineteenth-century latin america. Science in Latin America. A History. University of Texas Press, 2006.
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Quevedo, E & Gutiérrez, F 2006, Scientific medicine and public health in nineteenth-century latin america. En Science in Latin America. A History. University of Texas Press.

Scientific medicine and public health in nineteenth-century latin america. / Quevedo, Emilio; Gutiérrez, Francisco.

Science in Latin America. A History. University of Texas Press, 2006.

Resultado de la investigación: Contribución a libro /Tipo informe o reporteCapítulo

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Quevedo E, Gutiérrez F. Scientific medicine and public health in nineteenth-century latin america. En Science in Latin America. A History. University of Texas Press. 2006