Computational psychiatry of impulsivity and risk: how risk and time preferences interact in health and disease

Título traducido de la contribución: Psiquiatría computacional de la impulsividad y el riesgo: cómo interactúan las preferencias por el riesgo y el tiempo en salud y enfermedad

Silvia Lopez-Guzman, Anna B Konova, Paul W Glimcher

Resultado de la investigación: Contribución a RevistaNúmero Especial

Resumen

La impulsividad decisional es un subcomponente importante del más amplio constructo de la impulsividad y es una característica clave para muchos trastornos psiquiátricos. La impulsividad decisional típicamente se cuantifica con el descuento temporal, un fenómeno bien documentado en el cual el valor subjetivo de una recompensa disminuye a medida que el retraso para su obtención y consumo aumenta. Sin embargo, la proclividad de un individuo —o con mayor frecuencia, su aversión—al riesgo puede influenciar prácticamente todas las herramiental actualmente disponibles para medir el descuento temporal. A pesar de esta interacción, la preferncia al riesgo es un constructo comportamental y neural distinto que se relaciona con el concepto de utilidad o valor subjetivo en economía. En este artículo, discutimos la relación matemática entre las preferencias al riesgo y al tiempo, su implementación neural, y proponemos maneras en las que la investigación en psiquiatría podría, y quizás debería, procurar tener en cuenta esta relación desde el punto de vista experimental para la impulsividad decisional entender mejor y su implicación clínica.

Este artículo es parte de la edición: "Toma de riesgos y conducta impulsiva: descubrimientos fundamentales, perspectivas teóricas e implicaciones clínicas".
Idioma originalEnglish (US)
Páginas (desde-hasta)1-11
Número de páginas11
PublicaciónPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Volumen374
N.º1766
DOI
EstadoE-pub ahead of print - feb 18 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Citar esto

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abstract = "Choice impulsivity is an important subcomponent of the broader construct of impulsivity and is a key feature of many psychiatric disorders. Choice impulsivity is typically quantified as temporal discounting, a well-documented phenomenon in which a reward's subjective value diminishes as the delay to its delivery is increased. However, an individual's proclivity to—or more commonly aversion to—risk can influence nearly all of the standard experimental tools available for measuring temporal discounting. Despite this interaction, risk preference is a behaviourally and neurobiologically distinct construct that relates to the economic notion of utility or subjective value. In this opinion piece, we discuss the mathematical relationship between risk preferences and time preferences, their neural implementation, and propose ways that research in psychiatry could, and perhaps should, aim to account for this relationship experimentally to better understand choice impulsivity and its clinical implications.This article is part of the theme issue ‘Risk taking and impulsive behaviour: fundamental discoveries, theoretical perspectives and clinical implications’.",
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Computational psychiatry of impulsivity and risk: how risk and time preferences interact in health and disease. / Lopez-Guzman, Silvia; Konova, Anna B; Glimcher, Paul W.

En: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 374, N.º 1766, 18.02.2019, p. 1-11.

Resultado de la investigación: Contribución a RevistaNúmero Especial

TY - JOUR

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N2 - Choice impulsivity is an important subcomponent of the broader construct of impulsivity and is a key feature of many psychiatric disorders. Choice impulsivity is typically quantified as temporal discounting, a well-documented phenomenon in which a reward's subjective value diminishes as the delay to its delivery is increased. However, an individual's proclivity to—or more commonly aversion to—risk can influence nearly all of the standard experimental tools available for measuring temporal discounting. Despite this interaction, risk preference is a behaviourally and neurobiologically distinct construct that relates to the economic notion of utility or subjective value. In this opinion piece, we discuss the mathematical relationship between risk preferences and time preferences, their neural implementation, and propose ways that research in psychiatry could, and perhaps should, aim to account for this relationship experimentally to better understand choice impulsivity and its clinical implications.This article is part of the theme issue ‘Risk taking and impulsive behaviour: fundamental discoveries, theoretical perspectives and clinical implications’.

AB - Choice impulsivity is an important subcomponent of the broader construct of impulsivity and is a key feature of many psychiatric disorders. Choice impulsivity is typically quantified as temporal discounting, a well-documented phenomenon in which a reward's subjective value diminishes as the delay to its delivery is increased. However, an individual's proclivity to—or more commonly aversion to—risk can influence nearly all of the standard experimental tools available for measuring temporal discounting. Despite this interaction, risk preference is a behaviourally and neurobiologically distinct construct that relates to the economic notion of utility or subjective value. In this opinion piece, we discuss the mathematical relationship between risk preferences and time preferences, their neural implementation, and propose ways that research in psychiatry could, and perhaps should, aim to account for this relationship experimentally to better understand choice impulsivity and its clinical implications.This article is part of the theme issue ‘Risk taking and impulsive behaviour: fundamental discoveries, theoretical perspectives and clinical implications’.

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