Interacción entre el estrés y la adicción: Contribuciones de la neurociencia latinoamericana

Angélica Torres-Berrio, Santiago Cuesta, Silvia Lopez-Guzman, Mauricio O. Nava-Mesa

Resultado de la investigación: Contribución a una revistaArtículo de revisión

1 Cita (Scopus)

Resumen

La drogadicción es un trastorno neuropsiquiátrico crónico que aumenta de una exposición inicial a las drogas de abuso, como la cocaína, el cannabis o la heroína, a la búsqueda e ingesta compulsiva de drogas, a la reducción de la capacidad para inhibir los comportamientos inducidos por el deseo de fumar y a los ciclos repetidos de abstinencia y recaída. Es bien sabido que los cambios crónicos en el sistema de recompensa del cerebro juegan un papel importante en la neurobiología de la adicción. En particular, factores ambientales como el estrés agudo o crónico afectan a este sistema y aumentan el riesgo de consumo de drogas y de recaída. De hecho, el eje HPA, el sistema nervioso autónomo y la amígdala extendida, entre otros sistemas de estrés cerebral, interactúan con el circuito de recompensa del cerebro involucrado en conductas adictivas. Ha habido un creciente interés en el estudio de los mecanismos moleculares, celulares y conductuales del estrés y la adicción en América Latina durante la última década. No obstante, es posible que estas contribuciones no sean tan reconocidas por el público científico en general como los estudios procedentes de los países desarrollados. En esta revisión, recopilamos por primera vez una serie de estudios realizados por neurocientíficos latinoamericanos, que han dedicado sus carreras al estudio de la interacción entre estrés y adicción, desde una perspectiva neurobiológica y clínica. Las contribuciones específicas sobre esta interacción incluyen el estudio de los receptores CRF en el tabique lateral, las investigaciones sobre los mecanismos neurales de sensibilización cruzada para los psicoestimulantes y el etanol, la identificación de la vía Wnt/β-catenina como un sustrato neural crítico para el estrés y la adicción, y la aparición del sistema cannabinoide como un objetivo terapéutico prometedor. Destacamos estudios en animales y humanos, incluyendo por ejemplo, informes provenientes de laboratorios latinoamericanos sobre polimorfismos de nucleótidos únicos en genes relacionados con el estrés y biomarcadores potenciales de vulnerabilidad a la adicción, que apuntan a unir el conocimiento de la ciencia básica a la investigación clínica.
Idioma originalInglés estadounidense
Número de artículo2639
Páginas (desde-hasta)1-17
Número de páginas17
PublicaciónFrontiers in Psychology
Volumen9
N.ºDEC
DOI
EstadoPublicada - dic 21 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psicología (todo)

Citar esto

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title = "Interaction between stress and addiction: Contributions from Latin-American neuroscience",
abstract = "Drug addiction is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder that escalates from an initial exposure to drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, cannabis, or heroin, to compulsive drug-seeking and intake, reduced ability to inhibit craving-induced behaviors, and repeated cycles of abstinence and relapse. It is well-known that chronic changes in the brain's reward system play an important role in the neurobiology of addiction. Notably, environmental factors such as acute or chronic stress affect this system, and increase the risk for drug consumption and relapse. Indeed, the HPA axis, the autonomic nervous system, and the extended amygdala, among other brain stress systems, interact with the brain's reward circuit involved in addictive behaviors. There has been a growing interest in studying the molecular, cellular, and behavioral mechanisms of stress and addiction in Latin-America over the last decade. Nonetheless, these contributions may not be as strongly acknowledged by the broad scientific audience as studies coming from developed countries. In this review, we compile for the first time a series of studies conducted by Latin American-based neuroscientists, who have devoted their careers to studying the interaction between stress and addiction, from a neurobiological and clinical perspective. Specific contributions about this interaction include the study of CRF receptors in the lateral septum, investigations on the neural mechanisms of cross-sensitization for psychostimulants and ethanol, the identification of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a critical neural substrate for stress and addiction, and the emergence of the cannabinoid system as a promising therapeutic target. We highlight animal and human studies, including for instance, reports coming from Latin American laboratories on single nucleotide polymorphisms in stress-related genes and potential biomarkers of vulnerability to addiction, that aim to bridge the knowledge from basic science to clinical research.",
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Interaction between stress and addiction : Contributions from Latin-American neuroscience. / Torres-Berrio, Angélica; Cuesta, Santiago; Lopez-Guzman, Silvia; Nava-Mesa, Mauricio O.

En: Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 9, N.º DEC, 2639, 21.12.2018, p. 1-17.

Resultado de la investigación: Contribución a una revistaArtículo de revisión

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T1 - Interaction between stress and addiction

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AU - Torres-Berrio, Angélica

AU - Cuesta, Santiago

AU - Lopez-Guzman, Silvia

AU - Nava-Mesa, Mauricio O.

PY - 2018/12/21

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N2 - Drug addiction is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder that escalates from an initial exposure to drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, cannabis, or heroin, to compulsive drug-seeking and intake, reduced ability to inhibit craving-induced behaviors, and repeated cycles of abstinence and relapse. It is well-known that chronic changes in the brain's reward system play an important role in the neurobiology of addiction. Notably, environmental factors such as acute or chronic stress affect this system, and increase the risk for drug consumption and relapse. Indeed, the HPA axis, the autonomic nervous system, and the extended amygdala, among other brain stress systems, interact with the brain's reward circuit involved in addictive behaviors. There has been a growing interest in studying the molecular, cellular, and behavioral mechanisms of stress and addiction in Latin-America over the last decade. Nonetheless, these contributions may not be as strongly acknowledged by the broad scientific audience as studies coming from developed countries. In this review, we compile for the first time a series of studies conducted by Latin American-based neuroscientists, who have devoted their careers to studying the interaction between stress and addiction, from a neurobiological and clinical perspective. Specific contributions about this interaction include the study of CRF receptors in the lateral septum, investigations on the neural mechanisms of cross-sensitization for psychostimulants and ethanol, the identification of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a critical neural substrate for stress and addiction, and the emergence of the cannabinoid system as a promising therapeutic target. We highlight animal and human studies, including for instance, reports coming from Latin American laboratories on single nucleotide polymorphisms in stress-related genes and potential biomarkers of vulnerability to addiction, that aim to bridge the knowledge from basic science to clinical research.

AB - Drug addiction is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder that escalates from an initial exposure to drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, cannabis, or heroin, to compulsive drug-seeking and intake, reduced ability to inhibit craving-induced behaviors, and repeated cycles of abstinence and relapse. It is well-known that chronic changes in the brain's reward system play an important role in the neurobiology of addiction. Notably, environmental factors such as acute or chronic stress affect this system, and increase the risk for drug consumption and relapse. Indeed, the HPA axis, the autonomic nervous system, and the extended amygdala, among other brain stress systems, interact with the brain's reward circuit involved in addictive behaviors. There has been a growing interest in studying the molecular, cellular, and behavioral mechanisms of stress and addiction in Latin-America over the last decade. Nonetheless, these contributions may not be as strongly acknowledged by the broad scientific audience as studies coming from developed countries. In this review, we compile for the first time a series of studies conducted by Latin American-based neuroscientists, who have devoted their careers to studying the interaction between stress and addiction, from a neurobiological and clinical perspective. Specific contributions about this interaction include the study of CRF receptors in the lateral septum, investigations on the neural mechanisms of cross-sensitization for psychostimulants and ethanol, the identification of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a critical neural substrate for stress and addiction, and the emergence of the cannabinoid system as a promising therapeutic target. We highlight animal and human studies, including for instance, reports coming from Latin American laboratories on single nucleotide polymorphisms in stress-related genes and potential biomarkers of vulnerability to addiction, that aim to bridge the knowledge from basic science to clinical research.

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