Molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in Latin America

Título traducido de la contribución: Epidemiología molecular de Cryptococcus neoformans y Cryptococcus gattii en América Latina

Resultado de la investigación: Tipos de Contribuciónes en ConferenciaResumen

Resumen

Objetivo: Combinar y analizar los datos reportados desde América Latina que han contribuido a la identificación, genotipado, epidemiología molecular, distribución geográfica, identificación de nichos ecológicos y genética poblacional de los agentes etiológicos de la criptococosis, una micosis potencialmente mortal adquirida del medio ambiente, causada por las levaduras encapsuladas Cryptococcus neoformans y C. gattii. En América Latina, el estudio de la criptococosis y sus agentes etiológicos ha cobrado cada vez más importancia.
ya que esta micosis tiene una morbimortalidad significativa, con más de 5000 individuos afectados con meningitis criptocócica anualmente y 2400 muertes anuales atribuibles. Además, el número de pacientes inmunocomprometidos en la región aumenta constantemente, con alrededor de 100.000 nuevas infecciones por el VIH al año, que es la principal condición que predispone a la criptococosis. Métodos: La búsqueda de los estudios sobre epidemiología molecular de Cryptococcus y criptococosis se realizó en inglés y español en bases de datos de PubMed y Google utilizando las palabras clave "cryptococcus" o "cryptococcosis" combinadas con cada nombre de los 20 países latinoamericanos. Resultados: El análisis de los datos moleculares combinados de 2110 aislamientos de criptococos clínicos y 1029 ambientales aislados de América Latina mostró que, como en todo el mundo, C. neoformans molecular tipo VNI es la causa más común de criptococosis (69.6%), afectando predominantemente a pacientes con VIH, seguido por C. gattii molecular tipo VGII (16.1%), que generalmente afecta a individuos que por lo demás son saludables. Curiosamente, en el medio ambiente estos dos tipos moleculares también predominan con proporciones ligeramente diferentes (55,1% para VNI y 26,7% para VGII). Sin embargo, mientras que el reservorio ambiental de C. neoformans es principalmente guano aviar, materia orgánica en descomposición y suelo, el nicho de C. gattii está asociado con varias especies de árboles. En Brasil y Colombia, los países con el mayor número de aislados, VNI y VGII son los tipos moleculares más comunes, aunque en Colombia, la prevalencia de VGIII es muy similar a la de VGII. En México y Argentina, sin embargo, después del VNI, los tipos moleculares VGIII y VGI son los más comunes entre los aislados de C. gattii, respectivamente. Mediante la tipificación de secuencias multilocales y la secuenciación del genoma completo, también se ha logrado un mayor avance para comprender las poblaciones de C. gattii en América Latina. En primer lugar, el estudio global de los aislados de C. gattii VGII proporcionó evidencia sobre la evolución de este patógeno en América del Norte y dio soporte a la extensa evolución y dispersión desde América del Sur, muy probablemente desde la Amazonía y el Noreste de Brasil, donde las cepas de VGII han demostrado ser las más variables genéticamente comparadas con los aislados mundiales. Además, se ha propuesto que México y Colombia sean el origen probable de la población de VGIII, ya que los aislados de estos países son el grupo basal de aislados recuperados en todo el mundo. Conclusión: Este trabajo resume los avances significativos que se han logrado en los últimos años hacia la epidemiología molecular de los aislados criptocócicos en América Latina, que contribuyen a comprender cómo se han propagado estas levaduras patógenas en todo el mundo y cuál es su estructura poblacional, y a definir mejor algunos aspectos de la enfermedad de la criptococosis, una micosis importante en la región.
Idioma originalEnglish (US)
PáginasS4
Número de páginas1
EstadoPublished - jul 1 2018
Evento20th Congress of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology - Amsterdam
Duración: jun 30 2018jul 4 2018
https://www.isham2018.org/en/Home_10_6_12.html

Conference

Conference20th Congress of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Título abreviado20th Congress ISHAM
PaísNetherlands
CiudadAmsterdam
Período6/30/187/4/18
Dirección de internet

Citar esto

Firacative, C. (2018). Molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in Latin America. S4. Resumen desde 20th Congress of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology, Amsterdam, .
Firacative, Carolina. / Molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in Latin America. Resumen desde 20th Congress of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology, Amsterdam, .1 p.
@conference{6f12c0df80dc479f8a8239d719b04669,
title = "Molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in Latin America",
abstract = "Objective: To combine and analyse data reported from Latin America that has contributed to the identification, genotyping, molecular epidemiology, geographical distribution, ecological niche identification, and population genetics of the aetiological agents of cryptococcosis, a life-threatening mycosis acquired from the environment, that is caused by the encapsulated yeasts Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii. In Latin America, the study of cryptococcosis and its aetiological agents has become increasingly importantas this mycosis has significant morbimortality, with more than 5000 individuals affected with cryptococcal meningitis yearly and 2400 attributable annual deaths. Additionally, the number of immunocompromised patients in the region constantly increases, with about 100000 new HIV infections annually, which is the main condition predisposing to cryptococcosis. Methods: Search on the studies on the molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus and cryptococcosis was performed in English and Spanish in PubMed and Google databases using the keywords “cryptococcus” or “cryptococcosis” combined with each name of the 20 Latin American countries. Results: Analysis of the combined molecular data of 2110 clinical and 1029 environmental cryptococcal isolates from Latin America showed that, as worldwide, C. neoformans molecular type VNI is the most common cause of cryptococcosis (69.6{\%}), affecting predominantly HIV patients, followed by C. gattii molecular type VGII (16.1{\%}), which generally affects otherwise healthy individuals. Interestingly, in the environment these two molecular types also predominate with slightly different proportions (55.1{\%} for VNI and 26.7{\%} for VGII). However, whilst the environmental reservoir of C. neoformans is mainly avian guano, decaying organic matter and soil, the C. gattii niche is associated with several tree species. In Brazil and Colombia, the countries with the largest number of isolates, VNI and VGII are the most common molecular types, although in Colombia, the prevalence of VGIII is very similar to that of VGII. In Mexico and Argentina, however, after VNI, the molecular types VGIII and VGI are the most common among C. gattii isolates, respectively. By multi-locus sequence typing and whole genome sequencing, further advance to understand C. gattii populations has been also achieved in Latin America. Firstly, the global study of C. gattii VGII isolates provided evidence on the evolution of this pathogen in North America and gave support to the extensive evolution in, and dispersal from, South America, most likely from the Amazonia and the Northeast of Brazil, where VGII strains have shown to be the most variable genetically compared to worldwide isolates. Additionally, Mexico and Colombia have been proposed to be the likely origin of the VGIII population, as isolates from these countries are the basal group of isolates recovered worldwide. Conclusion: This work summarizes the significant progress that has been made in the recent years towards the molecular epidemiology of cryptococcal isolates in Latin America, that contribute to understand how these pathogenic yeasts have spread around the world and what is their population structure, and to better define some disease aspects of cryptococcosis, an important mycosis in the region.",
author = "Carolina Firacative",
year = "2018",
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day = "1",
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pages = "S4",
note = "20th Congress of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology, 20th Congress ISHAM ; Conference date: 30-06-2018 Through 04-07-2018",
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Molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in Latin America. / Firacative, Carolina.

2018. S4 Resumen desde 20th Congress of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology, Amsterdam, .

Resultado de la investigación: Tipos de Contribuciónes en ConferenciaResumen

TY - CONF

T1 - Molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in Latin America

AU - Firacative, Carolina

PY - 2018/7/1

Y1 - 2018/7/1

N2 - Objective: To combine and analyse data reported from Latin America that has contributed to the identification, genotyping, molecular epidemiology, geographical distribution, ecological niche identification, and population genetics of the aetiological agents of cryptococcosis, a life-threatening mycosis acquired from the environment, that is caused by the encapsulated yeasts Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii. In Latin America, the study of cryptococcosis and its aetiological agents has become increasingly importantas this mycosis has significant morbimortality, with more than 5000 individuals affected with cryptococcal meningitis yearly and 2400 attributable annual deaths. Additionally, the number of immunocompromised patients in the region constantly increases, with about 100000 new HIV infections annually, which is the main condition predisposing to cryptococcosis. Methods: Search on the studies on the molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus and cryptococcosis was performed in English and Spanish in PubMed and Google databases using the keywords “cryptococcus” or “cryptococcosis” combined with each name of the 20 Latin American countries. Results: Analysis of the combined molecular data of 2110 clinical and 1029 environmental cryptococcal isolates from Latin America showed that, as worldwide, C. neoformans molecular type VNI is the most common cause of cryptococcosis (69.6%), affecting predominantly HIV patients, followed by C. gattii molecular type VGII (16.1%), which generally affects otherwise healthy individuals. Interestingly, in the environment these two molecular types also predominate with slightly different proportions (55.1% for VNI and 26.7% for VGII). However, whilst the environmental reservoir of C. neoformans is mainly avian guano, decaying organic matter and soil, the C. gattii niche is associated with several tree species. In Brazil and Colombia, the countries with the largest number of isolates, VNI and VGII are the most common molecular types, although in Colombia, the prevalence of VGIII is very similar to that of VGII. In Mexico and Argentina, however, after VNI, the molecular types VGIII and VGI are the most common among C. gattii isolates, respectively. By multi-locus sequence typing and whole genome sequencing, further advance to understand C. gattii populations has been also achieved in Latin America. Firstly, the global study of C. gattii VGII isolates provided evidence on the evolution of this pathogen in North America and gave support to the extensive evolution in, and dispersal from, South America, most likely from the Amazonia and the Northeast of Brazil, where VGII strains have shown to be the most variable genetically compared to worldwide isolates. Additionally, Mexico and Colombia have been proposed to be the likely origin of the VGIII population, as isolates from these countries are the basal group of isolates recovered worldwide. Conclusion: This work summarizes the significant progress that has been made in the recent years towards the molecular epidemiology of cryptococcal isolates in Latin America, that contribute to understand how these pathogenic yeasts have spread around the world and what is their population structure, and to better define some disease aspects of cryptococcosis, an important mycosis in the region.

AB - Objective: To combine and analyse data reported from Latin America that has contributed to the identification, genotyping, molecular epidemiology, geographical distribution, ecological niche identification, and population genetics of the aetiological agents of cryptococcosis, a life-threatening mycosis acquired from the environment, that is caused by the encapsulated yeasts Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii. In Latin America, the study of cryptococcosis and its aetiological agents has become increasingly importantas this mycosis has significant morbimortality, with more than 5000 individuals affected with cryptococcal meningitis yearly and 2400 attributable annual deaths. Additionally, the number of immunocompromised patients in the region constantly increases, with about 100000 new HIV infections annually, which is the main condition predisposing to cryptococcosis. Methods: Search on the studies on the molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus and cryptococcosis was performed in English and Spanish in PubMed and Google databases using the keywords “cryptococcus” or “cryptococcosis” combined with each name of the 20 Latin American countries. Results: Analysis of the combined molecular data of 2110 clinical and 1029 environmental cryptococcal isolates from Latin America showed that, as worldwide, C. neoformans molecular type VNI is the most common cause of cryptococcosis (69.6%), affecting predominantly HIV patients, followed by C. gattii molecular type VGII (16.1%), which generally affects otherwise healthy individuals. Interestingly, in the environment these two molecular types also predominate with slightly different proportions (55.1% for VNI and 26.7% for VGII). However, whilst the environmental reservoir of C. neoformans is mainly avian guano, decaying organic matter and soil, the C. gattii niche is associated with several tree species. In Brazil and Colombia, the countries with the largest number of isolates, VNI and VGII are the most common molecular types, although in Colombia, the prevalence of VGIII is very similar to that of VGII. In Mexico and Argentina, however, after VNI, the molecular types VGIII and VGI are the most common among C. gattii isolates, respectively. By multi-locus sequence typing and whole genome sequencing, further advance to understand C. gattii populations has been also achieved in Latin America. Firstly, the global study of C. gattii VGII isolates provided evidence on the evolution of this pathogen in North America and gave support to the extensive evolution in, and dispersal from, South America, most likely from the Amazonia and the Northeast of Brazil, where VGII strains have shown to be the most variable genetically compared to worldwide isolates. Additionally, Mexico and Colombia have been proposed to be the likely origin of the VGIII population, as isolates from these countries are the basal group of isolates recovered worldwide. Conclusion: This work summarizes the significant progress that has been made in the recent years towards the molecular epidemiology of cryptococcal isolates in Latin America, that contribute to understand how these pathogenic yeasts have spread around the world and what is their population structure, and to better define some disease aspects of cryptococcosis, an important mycosis in the region.

M3 - Abstract

SP - S4

ER -

Firacative C. Molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in Latin America. 2018. Resumen desde 20th Congress of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology, Amsterdam, .