Exercise and Training at Altitudes: Physiological Effects and Protocols

Título traducido de la contribución: Ejercicio y entrenamiento en altura: efectos fisiológicos y protocolos

Resultado de la investigación: Contribución a RevistaArtículo

3 Citas (Scopus)

Resumen

A mayor altitud se produce una disminución proporcional en la presión barométrica y atmosférica del oxígeno. Esto genera hipoxia hipobárica que afecta, en diferentes grados, a todos los órganos, sistemas y funciones del organismo. La reducción crónica de la presión parcial de oxígeno hace que los individuos se adapten y se ajusten a este estrés fisiológico. La intensidad de estas adaptaciones depende de factores como el grado de hipoxia relacionado con la altitud, el tiempo de exposición, la intensidad del ejercicio y las condiciones individuales. Se ha establecido que la exposición a la altura produce una respuesta fisiológica que contribuye en muchos de los ajustes y adaptaciones que influyen la capacidad de ejercicio y de resistencia aeróbica. Estas adaptaciones incluyen aumento en la ventilación, densidad capilar y concentración de mioglobina tisular y hemoglobina. Sin embargo, hay un efecto negativo en fuerza y potencia relacionado con una disminución en la masa muscular y el tamaño de la fibra, por una menor intensidad del entrenamiento. Métodos de entrenamiento como vivir alto -entrenar bajo y entrenar alto-vivir bajo han sido desarrollados e investigados para establecer los cambios en la condición física de los atletas y cómo las adaptaciones fisiológicas a la hipoxia pueden mejorar su desempeño a nivel del mar. Esta revisión analiza la literatura relacionada con el entrenamiento en altura, centrándose en la influencia las adaptaciones fisiológicas a ambientes hipóxicos en el rendimiento y desempeño de los atletas; y cuáles son los protocolos más frecuentemente utilizados para entrenar en altura.
Idioma originalEnglish (US)
Páginas (desde-hasta)111-126
PublicaciónRevista Ciencias de la Salud
Volumen12
N.º1
EstadoPublished - abr 1 2014

Huella dactilar

Exercise
athlete
performance
Physiological Adaptation
training method
Athletes
endurance
Oxygen
Physiological Stress
Atmospheric Pressure
Myoglobin
Partial Pressure
Body Size
Research
Oceans and Seas
cause
Ventilation
Hemoglobins
Pressure
Muscles

Citar esto

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title = "Exercise and Training at Altitudes: Physiological Effects and Protocols",
abstract = "An increase in altitude leads to a proportional fall in the barometric pressure, and a decrease in atmospheric oxygen pressure, producing hypobaric hypoxia that affects, in different degrees, all body organs, systems and functions. The chronically reduced partial pressure of oxygen causes that individuals adapt and adjust to physiological stress. These adaptations are modulated by many factors, including the degree of hypoxia related to altitude, time of exposure, exercise intensity and individual conditions. It has been established that exposure to high altitude is an environmental stressor that elicits a response that contributes to many adjustments and adaptations that influence exercise capacity and endurance performance. These adaptations include increase in hemoglobin concentration, ventilation, capillary density and tissue myoglobin concentration. However, a negative effect in strength and power is related to a decrease in muscle fiber size and body mass due to the decrease in the training intensity. Many researches aim at establishing how training or living at high altitudes affects performance in athletes. Training methods, such as living in high altitudes-training low, and training high-living in low altitudes have been used to research the changes in the physical condition in athletes and how the physiological adaptations to hypoxia can enhance performance at sea level. This review analyzes the literature related to altitude training focused on how physiological adaptations to hypoxic environments influence performance, and which protocols are most frequently used to train in high altitudes.",
author = "{Vargas Pinilla}, {Olga Cecilia}",
year = "2014",
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language = "English (US)",
volume = "12",
pages = "111--126",
journal = "Revista Ciencias de la Salud",
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Exercise and Training at Altitudes: Physiological Effects and Protocols. / Vargas Pinilla, Olga Cecilia.

En: Revista Ciencias de la Salud, Vol. 12, N.º 1, 01.04.2014, p. 111-126.

Resultado de la investigación: Contribución a RevistaArtículo

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AU - Vargas Pinilla, Olga Cecilia

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N2 - An increase in altitude leads to a proportional fall in the barometric pressure, and a decrease in atmospheric oxygen pressure, producing hypobaric hypoxia that affects, in different degrees, all body organs, systems and functions. The chronically reduced partial pressure of oxygen causes that individuals adapt and adjust to physiological stress. These adaptations are modulated by many factors, including the degree of hypoxia related to altitude, time of exposure, exercise intensity and individual conditions. It has been established that exposure to high altitude is an environmental stressor that elicits a response that contributes to many adjustments and adaptations that influence exercise capacity and endurance performance. These adaptations include increase in hemoglobin concentration, ventilation, capillary density and tissue myoglobin concentration. However, a negative effect in strength and power is related to a decrease in muscle fiber size and body mass due to the decrease in the training intensity. Many researches aim at establishing how training or living at high altitudes affects performance in athletes. Training methods, such as living in high altitudes-training low, and training high-living in low altitudes have been used to research the changes in the physical condition in athletes and how the physiological adaptations to hypoxia can enhance performance at sea level. This review analyzes the literature related to altitude training focused on how physiological adaptations to hypoxic environments influence performance, and which protocols are most frequently used to train in high altitudes.

AB - An increase in altitude leads to a proportional fall in the barometric pressure, and a decrease in atmospheric oxygen pressure, producing hypobaric hypoxia that affects, in different degrees, all body organs, systems and functions. The chronically reduced partial pressure of oxygen causes that individuals adapt and adjust to physiological stress. These adaptations are modulated by many factors, including the degree of hypoxia related to altitude, time of exposure, exercise intensity and individual conditions. It has been established that exposure to high altitude is an environmental stressor that elicits a response that contributes to many adjustments and adaptations that influence exercise capacity and endurance performance. These adaptations include increase in hemoglobin concentration, ventilation, capillary density and tissue myoglobin concentration. However, a negative effect in strength and power is related to a decrease in muscle fiber size and body mass due to the decrease in the training intensity. Many researches aim at establishing how training or living at high altitudes affects performance in athletes. Training methods, such as living in high altitudes-training low, and training high-living in low altitudes have been used to research the changes in the physical condition in athletes and how the physiological adaptations to hypoxia can enhance performance at sea level. This review analyzes the literature related to altitude training focused on how physiological adaptations to hypoxic environments influence performance, and which protocols are most frequently used to train in high altitudes.

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