Effect of the nucleophile’s nature on chloroacetanilide herbicides cleavage reaction mechanism. A dft study

Sebastián A. Cuesta, F. Javier Torres, Luis Rincón, José Luis Paz, Edgar A. Márquez, José R. Mora

Resultado de la investigación: Contribución a una revistaArtículorevisión exhaustiva

Resumen

In this study, the degradation mechanism of chloroacetanilide herbicides in the presence of four different nucleophiles, namely: Br, I, HS, and S2 O3−2, was theoretically evaluated using the dispersion-corrected hybrid functional wB97XD and the DGDZVP as a basis set. The comparison of computed activation energies with experimental data shows an excellent correlation (R2 = 0.98 for alachlor and 0.97 for propachlor). The results suggest that the best nucleophiles are those where a sulfur atom performs the nucleophilic attack, whereas the other species are less reactive. Furthermore, it was observed that the different R groups of chloroacetanilide herbicides have a negligible effect on the activation energy of the process. Further insights into the mechanism show that geometrical changes and electronic rearrangements contribute 60% and 40% of the activation energy, respectively. A deeper analysis of the reaction coordinate was conducted, employing the evolution chemical potential, hardness, and electrophilicity index, as well as the electronic flux. The charge analysis shows that the electron density of chlorine increases as the nucleophilic attack occurs. Finally, NBO analysis indicates that the nucleophilic substitution in chloroacetanilides is an asynchronous process with a late transition state for all models except for the case of the iodide attack, which occurs through an early transition state in the reaction.

Idioma originalInglés estadounidense
Número de artículo6876
PublicaciónInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volumen22
N.º13
DOI
EstadoPublicada - jul 1 2021
Publicado de forma externa

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catálisis
  • Biología molecular
  • Espectroscopia
  • Informática aplicada
  • Química física y teórica
  • Química orgánica
  • Química inorgánica

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