Validation of the Extreme Experiences Scale (EX2) for Armed Conflict Contexts

Luz Stella Giraldo, Daniel Camilo Aguirre Acevedo, Sandra P. Trujillo, Juan Esteban Ugarriza, Natalia Trujillo Orrego

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12 Scopus citations


Psychological approaches to the study of armed conflict have focused on analyzing post-traumatic stress outcomes, and on evaluating the intensity of exposure to violent confrontation. Nevertheless, psychometrically valid tools required for measuring these traumatic experiences are scarce To validate the Extreme Experiences scale (EX2) for armed conflict contexts for its use in Colombia, and to provide a framework for validation in conflict contexts around the world This Cross-sectional aims to validate the scale with 187 participants, study of validate with 187 participants, comprising population with high exposure to conflict (former combatants and a set of armed conflict victims) and low conflict-exposed individuals (control group). Structures of two domains and 18 items were confirmed: Direct Extreme Experiences (dEX2) and Indirect Extreme Experiences (iEX2); these dimensions were also validated by expert judgment, producing 14-item version. Good levels of internal consistency were found, with a KR-20 of 0.80 for the 18-item version, and 0.77 for the 14-item. The scale differentiates between population with ‘high exposure to conflict’ from population with ‘low exposure’ (dnp > 0.5 and area under the ROC >0.90). The scale scores have significant correlation with some mental health constructs. The EX2 scale has good internal consistency, as well as structural validity with regard to exposed groups. This scale can be potentially validated for its use in countries with armed confrontation history. In future versions, the scale may include additional items in order to improve content validity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)495-520
Number of pages26
JournalPsychiatric Quarterly
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Political Science and International Relations
  • General Psychology


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