Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi that lately has been highlighted because several outbreaks attributed to oral transmission of the parasite have occurred. These outbreaks are characterized by high mortality rates and massive infections that cannot be related to other types of transmission such as the vectorial route. Oral transmission of Chagas disease has been reported in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador, Argentina and French Guiana, most of them are massive oral outbreaks caused by the ingestion of beverages and food contaminated with triatomine feces or parasites’ reservoirs secretions and considered since 2012 as a foodborne disease. In this review, we present the current status and all available data regarding oral transmission of Chagas disease, highlighting its relevance as a veterinary and medical foodborne zoonosis.
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