Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral pathology characterized by distinct degrees of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Although ADHD etiology remains elusive, the ADRA2A candidate gene underlies a particular interest, since it participates in the prefrontal cortex regulation of executive function. Three SNPs located on 5′ and 3′UTR regions of the gene have been extensively explored but none of them have been definitely validated as a predisposition or a causative sequence variation. In this study, in order to determine whether ADRA2A non-synonymous sequence variants, resulting in biochemical modifications of the protein, are a common cause of the disease we sequenced the complete ADRA2A coding region in a panel of ADHD children of Colombian origin. We identified the c.1138 C>A (p.Arg380Arg) silent substitution. We conclude that ADRA2A non-synonymous sequence variants do not cause ADHD in our sample population. We cannot formerly discard a potential role of this gene during ADHD pathogenesis since only the coding region was analysed. We hope that these results will encourage further researchers to sequence the promoter and coding regions of ADRA2A in large panels of ADHD patients from distinct ethnical origins. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Italia.