Optimal adherence to a mediterranean diet may not overcome the deleterious effects of low physical fitness on cardiovascular disease risk in adolescents: A cross-sectional pooled analysis

César Agostinis-Sobrinho, Rute Santos, Rafaela Rosário, Carla Moreira, Luís Lopes, Jorge Mota, Arvydas Martinkenas, Antonio García-Hermoso, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

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Abstract

To examine the combined association of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscular fitness (MF), and adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) on cardiovascular risk in adolescents, a pooled study, including cross-sectional data from two projects [2477 adolescents (1320 girls) aged 12–18 years], was completed. A shuttle run test was used to assess CRF. MF was assessed by the standing-long jump and handgrip tests. Adherence to a MeDiet was assessed by the Kidmed questionnaire. A cardiovascular risk score was computed from the following components: Age and sex, waist circumference, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and glucose. Analysis of covariance showed that participants classified as having optimal (High) adherence to a MeDiet/HighMF/HighCRF, as well those classified as low adherence to a MeDiet/HighMF/HighCRF, had, on average, the lowest cardiovascular risk score (F = 15.6; p < 0.001). In addition, the high adherence to a MeDiet/LowMF/LowCRF group had the highest odds of having a high cardiovascular risk (OR = 7.1; 95% CI: 3.4–15.1; p < 0.001), followed by the low adherence to a MeDiet/LowMF/LowCRF group (OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 2.2–6.3; p < 0.001), high adherence to a MeDiet/HighMF/LowCRF group (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.4–7.0; p = 0.006), and low adherence to a MeDiet/LowMF/HighCRF group (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5–4.4; p = 0.002) when compared to those with high adherence to a MeDiet/HighMF/HighCRF, after adjustments for potential confounders. In conclusion, our findings showed that, regardless of the MeDiet status, adolescents with low MF and low CRF cumulatively, presented the highest cardiovascular disease risk. Therefore, these findings suggest that the combination of these two fitness components may be beneficial to adolescents’ cardiometabolic profile, independent of MeDiet behaviour.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number815
JournalNutrients
Volume10
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 25 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Agostinis-Sobrinho, César ; Santos, Rute ; Rosário, Rafaela ; Moreira, Carla ; Lopes, Luís ; Mota, Jorge ; Martinkenas, Arvydas ; García-Hermoso, Antonio ; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique ; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson. / Optimal adherence to a mediterranean diet may not overcome the deleterious effects of low physical fitness on cardiovascular disease risk in adolescents : A cross-sectional pooled analysis. In: Nutrients. 2018 ; Vol. 10, No. 7.
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title = "Optimal adherence to a mediterranean diet may not overcome the deleterious effects of low physical fitness on cardiovascular disease risk in adolescents: A cross-sectional pooled analysis",
abstract = "To examine the combined association of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscular fitness (MF), and adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) on cardiovascular risk in adolescents, a pooled study, including cross-sectional data from two projects [2477 adolescents (1320 girls) aged 12–18 years], was completed. A shuttle run test was used to assess CRF. MF was assessed by the standing-long jump and handgrip tests. Adherence to a MeDiet was assessed by the Kidmed questionnaire. A cardiovascular risk score was computed from the following components: Age and sex, waist circumference, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and glucose. Analysis of covariance showed that participants classified as having optimal (High) adherence to a MeDiet/HighMF/HighCRF, as well those classified as low adherence to a MeDiet/HighMF/HighCRF, had, on average, the lowest cardiovascular risk score (F = 15.6; p < 0.001). In addition, the high adherence to a MeDiet/LowMF/LowCRF group had the highest odds of having a high cardiovascular risk (OR = 7.1; 95{\%} CI: 3.4–15.1; p < 0.001), followed by the low adherence to a MeDiet/LowMF/LowCRF group (OR = 3.7; 95{\%} CI: 2.2–6.3; p < 0.001), high adherence to a MeDiet/HighMF/LowCRF group (OR = 3.1; 95{\%} CI: 1.4–7.0; p = 0.006), and low adherence to a MeDiet/LowMF/HighCRF group (OR = 2.5; 95{\%} CI: 1.5–4.4; p = 0.002) when compared to those with high adherence to a MeDiet/HighMF/HighCRF, after adjustments for potential confounders. In conclusion, our findings showed that, regardless of the MeDiet status, adolescents with low MF and low CRF cumulatively, presented the highest cardiovascular disease risk. Therefore, these findings suggest that the combination of these two fitness components may be beneficial to adolescents’ cardiometabolic profile, independent of MeDiet behaviour.",
author = "C{\'e}sar Agostinis-Sobrinho and Rute Santos and Rafaela Ros{\'a}rio and Carla Moreira and Lu{\'i}s Lopes and Jorge Mota and Arvydas Martinkenas and Antonio Garc{\'i}a-Hermoso and Correa-Bautista, {Jorge Enrique} and Robinson Ram{\'i}rez-V{\'e}lez",
year = "2018",
month = "6",
day = "25",
doi = "10.3390/nu10070815",
language = "English (US)",
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journal = "Nutrients",
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Agostinis-Sobrinho, C, Santos, R, Rosário, R, Moreira, C, Lopes, L, Mota, J, Martinkenas, A, García-Hermoso, A, Correa-Bautista, JE & Ramírez-Vélez, R 2018, 'Optimal adherence to a mediterranean diet may not overcome the deleterious effects of low physical fitness on cardiovascular disease risk in adolescents: A cross-sectional pooled analysis', Nutrients, vol. 10, no. 7, 815. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070815

Optimal adherence to a mediterranean diet may not overcome the deleterious effects of low physical fitness on cardiovascular disease risk in adolescents : A cross-sectional pooled analysis. / Agostinis-Sobrinho, César; Santos, Rute; Rosário, Rafaela; Moreira, Carla; Lopes, Luís; Mota, Jorge; Martinkenas, Arvydas; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson.

In: Nutrients, Vol. 10, No. 7, 815, 25.06.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Optimal adherence to a mediterranean diet may not overcome the deleterious effects of low physical fitness on cardiovascular disease risk in adolescents

T2 - A cross-sectional pooled analysis

AU - Agostinis-Sobrinho, César

AU - Santos, Rute

AU - Rosário, Rafaela

AU - Moreira, Carla

AU - Lopes, Luís

AU - Mota, Jorge

AU - Martinkenas, Arvydas

AU - García-Hermoso, Antonio

AU - Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique

AU - Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

PY - 2018/6/25

Y1 - 2018/6/25

N2 - To examine the combined association of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscular fitness (MF), and adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) on cardiovascular risk in adolescents, a pooled study, including cross-sectional data from two projects [2477 adolescents (1320 girls) aged 12–18 years], was completed. A shuttle run test was used to assess CRF. MF was assessed by the standing-long jump and handgrip tests. Adherence to a MeDiet was assessed by the Kidmed questionnaire. A cardiovascular risk score was computed from the following components: Age and sex, waist circumference, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and glucose. Analysis of covariance showed that participants classified as having optimal (High) adherence to a MeDiet/HighMF/HighCRF, as well those classified as low adherence to a MeDiet/HighMF/HighCRF, had, on average, the lowest cardiovascular risk score (F = 15.6; p < 0.001). In addition, the high adherence to a MeDiet/LowMF/LowCRF group had the highest odds of having a high cardiovascular risk (OR = 7.1; 95% CI: 3.4–15.1; p < 0.001), followed by the low adherence to a MeDiet/LowMF/LowCRF group (OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 2.2–6.3; p < 0.001), high adherence to a MeDiet/HighMF/LowCRF group (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.4–7.0; p = 0.006), and low adherence to a MeDiet/LowMF/HighCRF group (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5–4.4; p = 0.002) when compared to those with high adherence to a MeDiet/HighMF/HighCRF, after adjustments for potential confounders. In conclusion, our findings showed that, regardless of the MeDiet status, adolescents with low MF and low CRF cumulatively, presented the highest cardiovascular disease risk. Therefore, these findings suggest that the combination of these two fitness components may be beneficial to adolescents’ cardiometabolic profile, independent of MeDiet behaviour.

AB - To examine the combined association of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscular fitness (MF), and adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) on cardiovascular risk in adolescents, a pooled study, including cross-sectional data from two projects [2477 adolescents (1320 girls) aged 12–18 years], was completed. A shuttle run test was used to assess CRF. MF was assessed by the standing-long jump and handgrip tests. Adherence to a MeDiet was assessed by the Kidmed questionnaire. A cardiovascular risk score was computed from the following components: Age and sex, waist circumference, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and glucose. Analysis of covariance showed that participants classified as having optimal (High) adherence to a MeDiet/HighMF/HighCRF, as well those classified as low adherence to a MeDiet/HighMF/HighCRF, had, on average, the lowest cardiovascular risk score (F = 15.6; p < 0.001). In addition, the high adherence to a MeDiet/LowMF/LowCRF group had the highest odds of having a high cardiovascular risk (OR = 7.1; 95% CI: 3.4–15.1; p < 0.001), followed by the low adherence to a MeDiet/LowMF/LowCRF group (OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 2.2–6.3; p < 0.001), high adherence to a MeDiet/HighMF/LowCRF group (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.4–7.0; p = 0.006), and low adherence to a MeDiet/LowMF/HighCRF group (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5–4.4; p = 0.002) when compared to those with high adherence to a MeDiet/HighMF/HighCRF, after adjustments for potential confounders. In conclusion, our findings showed that, regardless of the MeDiet status, adolescents with low MF and low CRF cumulatively, presented the highest cardiovascular disease risk. Therefore, these findings suggest that the combination of these two fitness components may be beneficial to adolescents’ cardiometabolic profile, independent of MeDiet behaviour.

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