Ocular Toxoplasmosis

Eunice Jin Hui Goh, Ikhwanuliman Putera, Rina La Distia Nora, Padmamalini Mahendradas, Jyotirmay Biswas, Soon Phaik Chee, Ilaria Testi, Carlos E. Pavesio, Andre Luiz Land Curi, Daniel Vitor Vasconcelos-Santos, Atul Arora, Vishali Gupta, Alejandra de-la-Torre, Rupesh Agrawal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Introduction: Ocular toxoplasmosis is the leading cause of posterior uveitis worldwide, affecting individuals acrossdifferent age groups. The key to reducing vision loss includes prompt diagnosis and treatment. However, despite the prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis, there has been little consensus regarding its pathophysiology,clinical features, diagnosis, and especially management. Methods: The data sources were literature reviews, including Pub Med and Medline databases. Search terms included toxoplasmosis, retinitis, vasculitis, vitritis, uveitis alone or in combination with, serum, aqueous, vitreous eye, ocular and review. Results: In this review paper, we have sought to provide an overview of the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and clinical features of the disease, both based on current literature and our own clinical experience. We have also discussed the use of serology, ocular fluid, and ophthalmic investigations that could further facilitate the diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis.Different management strategies have been reported worldwide, including newer approaches such as local therapy. Conclusion: A better understanding of critical aspects of ocular toxoplasmosis will hopefully lead to reduced morbidity, including blindness associated with this condition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-20
Number of pages20
JournalOcular Immunology and Inflammation
Issue number7
StatePublished - Sep 12 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Ophthalmology


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