Infectious diseases are the tip of the iceberg in the economic burden of the developing countries, due to the resistance of the pathogens to antibiotics and the lack of vaccines. The vaccines have become a big challenge in the last decades, where the attention has been focused on scientific challenges such as new vaccine development and adjuvants or delivery systems. The classical vaccines were developed from live-attenuated or killed organisms, such as influenza, smallpox, and BCG, as well as subunits such as Hepatitis B. The attenuated vaccines carry the risk of regaining their pathogenicity under immunosuppression conditions. The development of subunit vaccines without risk are considered as an essential need in combination with adequate delivery systems to obtain desired cell and humoral immune responses against infectious diseases. In the last decades, the use of nanoparticles as a delivery system in vaccines has received special attention to improve vaccine efficacy. These nanoparticles could be composed of lipids, metal and nonmetal inorganics, several polymers, and virus-like particles, which have been tested in research; some of them have already been approved for human and animal use. The characteristics of the nanoparticles have allowed targeting desired antigen-presenting cells to improve immunization strategies to induce protection. The main characteristics of the nanoparticles are to protect the antigens from early proteolytic degradation, control antigen release, and help antigen uptake and processing by antigen-presenting cells, and they should be safe for human and veterinary use. In addition, the nanoparticles could be modified in their physicochemical properties to target specific cells and improve vaccine efficacy. This chapter focuses on the nanoparticle-based vaccine formulations and the approaches used to realize efficient delivery of vaccines in order to induce host protective immunity against infectious diseases.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Nanopharmaceuticals|
|Subtitle of host publication||Volume 1: Expectations and Realities of Multifunctional Drug Delivery Systems|
|Number of pages||16|
|State||Published - Jan 16 2020|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)