Background: The clinical presentation and severity of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C) is widespread and presents a very low mortality rate in high-income countries. This research describes the clinical characteristics of MIS-C in critically ill children in middle-income countries and the factors associated with the rate of mortality and patients with critical outcomes. Methods: An observational cohort study was conducted in 14 pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in Colombia between April 01, 2020, and January 31, 2021. Patient age ranged between one month and 18 years, and each patient met the requirements set forth by the World Health Organization (WHO) for MIS-C. Results: There were seventy-eight children in this study. The median age was seven years (IQR 1-11), 18 % (14/78) were under one year old, and 56 % were male. 35 % of patients (29/78) were obese or overweight. The PICU stay per individual was six days (IQR 4-7), and 100 % had a fever upon arrival to the clinic lasting at least five days (IQR 3.7-6). 70 % (55/78) of patients had diarrhea, and 87 % (68/78) had shock or systolic myocardial dysfunction (78 %). Coronary aneurysms were found in 35 % (27/78) of cases, and pericardial effusion was found in 36 %. When compared to existing data in high-income countries, there was a higher mortality rate observed (9 % vs. 1.8 %; p=0.001). When assessing the group of patients that did not survive, a higher frequency of ferritin levels was found, above 500 ngr/mL (100 % vs. 45 %; p=0.012), as well as more cardiovascular complications (100 % vs. 54 %; p = 0.019) when compared to the group that survived. The main treatments received were immunoglobulin (91 %), vasoactive support (76 %), steroids (70.5 %) and antiplatelets (44 %). Conclusions: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children due to SARS-CoV-2 in critically ill children living in a middle-income country has some clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic characteristics similar to those described in high-income countries. The observed inflammatory response and cardiovascular involvement were conditions that, added to the later presentation, may explain the higher mortality seen in these children.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health