Individual and Contextual Factors Associated with Teenage Pregnancy in Colombia: A Multilevel Analysis

Karen Aguía-Rojas, Andrés Daniel Gallego-Ardila, Maryi Viviana Estrada Bonilla, Juan Nicolás Rodríguez-Niño

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Objective: To analyze municipal- and individual-level factors related to the prevalence of teenage pregnancy in Colombia during 2015. Methods: We analyzed 660,767 births registers, of which 21.5% recorded adolescent women. At an individual level, marital status, educational level, area of residence, and access to health services were included in the analysis. At the contextual level, Colombian municipal socioeconomic characteristics and proxies of violence and poverty were analyzed. A multilevel logistic regression model was generated with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo estimation method using 100,000 simulations in MLwiN 2.32 software. Results: Multilevel modeling revealed an increased risk of teenage pregnancy in municipalities with the highest numbers of people expelled by forced displacement (OR 1.21; CI 95%, 1.13–1.29) and with unsatisfied basic needs (OR 1.09; CI 95%, 1.02–1.17). At an individual level, the majority of the teenage women were unmarried and/or had an unstable partnership, a low level of educational, a subsidized health regimen, and resided in the municipal seat. Conclusions: Municipal contextual variables related to poverty, violence, and social inequity contribute to an increase in teenage pregnancy in Colombia. At the individual level, marital status, educational level, and area of residence is associated with teenage pregnancy. It is therefore imperative to include municipal contextual characteristics in the design of the national political agenda.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalMaternal and Child Health Journal
StatePublished - Aug 19 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Epidemiology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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