The target organ of neurological autoimmune diseases (NADs) is the central or peripheral nervous system. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common NAD, whereas Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), myasthenia gravis (MG), and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are less common NADs, but the incidence of these diseases has increased exponentially in the last few years. The identification of a specific culprit in NADs is challenging since a myriad of triggering factors interplay with each other to cause an autoimmune response. Among the factors that have been associated with NADs are genetic susceptibility, epigenetic mechanisms, and environmental factors such as infection, microbiota, vitamins, etc. This review focuses on the most studied culprits as well as the mechanisms used by these to trigger NADs.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy