Species of the genus Russula are key components of ectomycorrhizal ecosystems worldwide. Nevertheless, their diversity in the tropics is still poorly known. This study aims to contribute to the knowledge of the diversity of Russula species classified in subsection Roseinae based on specimens recently collected in tropical montane rainforests in western Panama. A five gene multilocus phylogeny based on the nuclear markers ITS nrDNA, MCM7, RPB1, RPB2 and TEF-1α was constructed to identify the systematic position of 22 collections from Panama. Four new species, Russula cornicolor, Russula cynorhodon, Russula oreomunneae and Russula zephyrovelutipes are formally described and illustrated. None of the four species are sister species and they are more closely related to North American or Asian species. Two of the newly described species were associated with the ectomycorrhizal tree species Oreomunnea mexicana, while the other two species were associated with Quercus species. All four species are so far only known from mountains in western Panama.
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