False recognition in DRM lists with low association: A normative study

Sara Cadavid, María Soledad Beato

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7 Scopus citations


A wide array of studies have explored memory distortions with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, where participants study lists of words (e.g., door, glass, pane, shade, ledge, etc.) that are associated to another nonpresented critical word (e.g., WINDOW). On a subsequent memory test, the critical word is often falsely recalled and recognized, even though the critical word was not studied. The present normative study provided false recognition indexes for 48 DRM lists in Spanish with three critical words per list. Lists were constructed with low levels of backward associative strength (BAS), never examined before. Results showed that, even with low association, DRM lists were able to produce false recognition (M = 34%). Also, and despite the low level of association, results showed that there was a wide variability in false recognition per list (e.g., 10% in List 24: ANIMAL [ANIMAL], GATO [CAT], PERRO [DOG], celo [heat], cola [tail], manso [docile], peludo [furry], zarpa [claw], presa [prey]; 62% in List 05: DOLOR [PAIN], MUERTE [DEATH], TRISTEZA [SADNESS], odio [hatred], hambre [hunger], inanición [starvation], morir [to die], huérfano [orphan], consolado [consoled]), replicating previous findings. These new DRM lists will allow researchers to explore false memory effects when words are weakly associated among them.

Translated title of the contributionReconocimiento falso en listas DRM con asociación baja: Estudio normativo
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)133-147
Number of pages15
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Statistics and Probability
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Psychology (miscellaneous)


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