Etiology of Macular Edema Defined by Deep Learning in Optical Coherence Tomography Scans

Fabio Daniel Padilla-Pantoja, Yeison D. Sanchez, Bernardo Alfonso Quijano-Nieto, Oscar J. Perdomo, Fabio A. Gonzalez

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch Articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Purpose: To develop an automated method based on deep learning (DL) to classify macular edema (ME) from the evaluation of optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans. Methods: A total of 4230 images were obtained from data repositories of patients attended in an ophthalmology clinic in Colombia and two free open-access databases. They were annotated with four biomarkers (BMs) as intraretinal fluid, subretinal fluid, hyperreflective foci/tissue, and drusen. Then the scans were labeled as control or ocular disease among diabetic macular edema (DME), neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), and retinal vein occlusion (RVO) by two expert ophthalmologists. Our method was developed by following four consecutive phases: segmentation of BMs, the combination of BMs, feature extraction with convolutional neural networks to achieve binary classification for each disease, and, finally, multiclass classification of diseases and control images. Results: The accuracy of our model for nAMD was 97%, and for DME, RVO, and control were 94%, 93%, and 93%, respectively. Area under curve values were 0.99, 0.98, 0.96, and 0.97, respectively. The mean Cohen's kappa coefficient for the multiclass classification task was 0.84. Conclusions: The proposed DL model may identify OCT scans as normal and ME. In addition, it may classify its cause among three major exudative retinal diseases with high accuracy and reliability. Translational Relevance: Our DL approach can optimize the efficiency and timeliness of appropriate etiological diagnosis of ME, thus improving patient access and clinical decision making. It could be useful in places with a shortage of specialists and for readers that evaluate OCT scans remotely.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)29
Number of pages1
JournalTranslational vision science & technology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 28 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Ophthalmology


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