Sjögren's syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease clinically characterised by dry eye and mouth accompanied by extra-glandular manifestations such as oedema of the submandibular glands and parotidomegaly. The prevalence of dry eye varies from 5% to 30% in different epidemiological studies, depending on the studied population. Xerophthalmia is more common in women and its frequency increases with age. When evaluating a patient with Sjögrens syndrome, differential diagnoses with disease that can simulate this pathology must be taken into account, such as local, systemic causes that include metabolic, infectious, medicinal, infiltrative, and malignancy. The study of other causes is necessary to decide whether targeted therapy can be beneficial and avoid risks of adverse events in patients with non-autoimmune sicca syndrome. A narrative review was conducted on the differential diagnoses in the spectrum of patients with ‘dry syndrome’ using a literature search in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases.
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