Characterization of tear function tests in a healthy pediatric population in Bogota, Colombia

Alejandra De-La-Torre, Juliana Muñoz-Ortiz, William Rojas-Carabali, Pilar Uribe-Reina, Juan Pablo Terreros-Dorado, Jose Arteaga-Rivera, Juliana Reyes-Guanes, Nicolás Torres-Arias, María Eugenia Ruiz-Botero, Alejandra Rodríguez, Camilo Mosos, Angela María Gutiérrez-Marín, Guillermo Marroquín

Research output: Contribution to conferencePosterpeer-review


Methods : This is a cross-sectional study in 60 healthy children between 7-17 years old. Exclusion criteria: local or systemic disease, use of medications and contact lenses use. It was approved by our institutional ethic committee. Informed consent and assent were obtained. Performed tear function tests were: evaluation of the palpebral edge, blink frequency measurement, tear meniscus height, NITBUT, lipid layer thickness, conjunctival redness, tear osmolarity, meibography and lissamine green and fluorescein staining. Statistical analysis using R Core program obtained means and frequencies. Results were compared to adult normal values. Mixed-cluster methodology was used, determining three device preference groups: TV, smartphone and computer and tablet.

Results : Mean age was 12 years old, 41.6% were females. OSDI results mean was 9.5. Daily screen time was 335.5 minutes, being smartphone the most popular screen. Mean results of tear function tests were: paper blink frequency 6.8 times/minute, screen blink frequency 8.7 times/minute, palpebral edge was abnormal in 3 eyes, 49.16% had thin lipid layer, tear meniscus height 0.17 ± 0.04 mm, NITBUT 10.82 ± 5.37 seconds, nasal conjunctival redness 0.94 ± 0.37, temporal conjunctival redness 1.07 ± 0.41, tear osmolarity 304.35 ± 18,18 mmol, Schirmer 21.9 ± 10.51 mm, 70.8% had positive staining for Lissamine green and 47.4% for fluorescein, 61.1% had some grade of Meibomian gland loss and 31% some grade in all eyelids. We found a direct relation between age and tear meniscus height (p: 0.02), bigger tear meniscus height in boys than girls (p: 0.04), less tear meniscus height in children who use tablets than those who do not (p: 0.02), more conjunctival redness in boys than girls (p: 0.005) and more conjunctival redness in children who had positive fluorescein staining (p: 0.01). There was not statistical association between tear function test parameters and the three groups mentioned.

Conclusions : This is the first study including all tear function tests, in an attempt to describe normal values in healthy children in South America. Nevertheless, 100% of the participants reflected at least one tear function test altered, compared with adult normal values. This study opens the door to continue evaluating ocular surface in children.
Translated title of the contributionCaracterización de las pruebas de función lagrimal en una población pediátrica sana de Bogotá, Colombia
Original languageEnglish (US)
Number of pages1
StatePublished - Jun 26 2020
EventARVO Annual Meeting Abstract: June 2020 -
Duration: Jun 26 2020Jun 29 2020


SeminarARVO Annual Meeting Abstract
Abbreviated titleARVO

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ophthalmology


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