The Aotus nancymaae (owl monkey) is an important animal model in biomedical research, particularly for the preclinical evaluation of vaccine candidates against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, which require a precisely typed major histocompatibility complex. The exon 2 from A. nancymaae MHC-DPA1 gene was characterised in order to infer its allelic diversity and evolutionary history. Aona-DPA1 shows no polymorphism and is related to other primate DPA alleles (including Catarrhini and Platyrrhini), constituting an ancient trans-specific and strongly supported lineage with different variability and selective patterns when compared to other primate-MHC-DPA1 lineages. A. nancymaae monkeys have thus a smaller MHC-DP polymorphism than MHC-DQ or MHC-DR.
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