All rights reserved.Background: The overall estimated prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Mexico is 1.6%, but there are major variations in different geographic areas of the country. Objective: This study aimed to determine the impact of individual and regional variables on the geographic distribution of RA in Mexico. Methods: This multilevel analysis used data from a cross-sectional study that investigated the prevalence of RAamong 19,213 individuals older than 18 years throughout 5 geographic regions in Mexico. Logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of RA, including individual and regional variables as well as cultural factors. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined. Results: The prevalence of RAvaried from 0.77% to 2.8% across the 5 regions. Individual factors associated with RA were sex (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.74-3.07), previous medical diagnosis of RA (OR, 3.32; 95% CI, 2.19-2.20), disability (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.48-2.93), and the 56-to 65-year age group (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.08-3.74). The regional factor of speaking an indigenous language had an OR of 2.27 (95% CI, 1.13-4.55). Conclusions: Various individual and regional factors were associated with variations in the prevalence of RA in the Mexican population.