Confidence and integrity are critical in the physical and chemical analyses of tissues and living cells. However, many of the probes targeting biological markers for confocal spectroscopy affect cells' molecular identity. Hence, we combined photonics with electrical analysis in an assisted laser impedance spectroscopy facility and applied it to characterize two breast cancer cell lines (BT-474 and MCF-7) and lymphocytes (as a normal control). The setup comprised a sample holder with a ∼15 000 cell capacity fitted with two isolated conducting electrodes arranged concentrically and connected to an impedance analyser with a 20 Hz-1 MHz sweeping frequency. Capacitive transconductance measurements showed bands at 3491, 3494 and 3470 Hz corresponding to the BT-474, MCF-7, and lymphocytes, respectively. Under photonic stimulation by a 532 nm laser, these dark reference bands shifted to 3518, 3566 and 3674 Hz, respectively, reflecting optical transitions favouring ionic transport in the cells. Based on the experimental Nyquist diagrams and taking into account the roughness nature of the cell membrane, a constant phase element (CPE) was introduced in the circuit. The CPE was explained through a fractional parameter, α, based on fractional calculus. Results showed that, under photonic stimulation, α is less than 1/2, and the minimum change of series and membrane resistances are about 28.95% and 58.88%, respectively.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Acoustics and Ultrasonics
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films