Cryptococcosis is mycosis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Although C. neoformans causes >90% of cases and is considered an opportunistic pathogen, mainly affecting immunocompromised patients, especially with HIV, C. gattii is considered a primary pathogen affecting patients without an apparent risk factor. Although this mycosis occurs globally, occurrence in children is inexplicably rare. However, the detection of antibodies against C. neoformans in underage individuals demonstrates that the low incidence of pediatric cryptococcosis is not due to lack of exposure to the fungus but that the disease may be asymptomatic or confused with other infections frequently observed during childhood. These findings also confirm that cryptococcosis by C. neoformans in adults results from reactivation of a subclinical infection after immunosuppression. In the case of C. gattii disease it is suggested that it results from primary exposure rather than reactivation of old latent infections, although there are no studies demonstrating the absence of specific antibodies against C. gattii in children or healthy adults that reinforce this idea. In Colombia, cryptococcosis, with an incidence of 2.4 cases/million inhabitants, occurs not only in adults but also in children in different departments. This study seeks to determine antibodies against C. neoformans and C. gattii proteins in sera of healthy individuals with cryptococcosis, which will help to clarify sero-epidemiological variations in the incidence of the disease in the country, establish regional differences in exposure to the fungus and determine the proportion of children and adults immunized against both etiological agents. For the first time, serological factors of cryptococcosis as a primary infection, caused by C. gattii, which is endemic in certain departments of Colombia, will be studied.
|Effective start/end date||3/1/18 → 2/29/20|